Diversity of Life I Notes Week 6
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 6 210
Popular in Diversity of Life I
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Foreign Language
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
Reviews for Diversity of Life I Notes Week 6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/11/15
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 6 10615 Basidiomyceta POISONOUS MUSHROOMS Cultural Connections AngloSaxon origins Kickers vs CentralEastern Europe and Asia Pickers How do you tell if a mushroom is edible or poisonous main problem is identi cation need familiarity with ID characteristics and microscopic properties of specimens ndividua susceptibility can vary between people before eating anything consume only small quantities rst and see how you feel Habitatinduced differences Chickenofthewoods species can vary on substrate softwood vs hardwood NAMA Mushroom Poisonind Case Redistrv started in 1983 Total of cases in US to date 1800 formed from contributions in 48 states In 2000 only 66 cases nationally no fatalities but only 18 states involved NY reported 3 cases Eur0pean Statistics no precise data but probably thousands of cases annually some fatal usualy eastern European countries or FSU Mass poisonings much more frequent lneighborhood gatherings some countries such as France have statesupported identi cation series probaby cheaper than providing medical care So what are the fungi and toxins involved typicay 8 different kinds of mushroom poisoning recognized Fataities are usually associated with Groups I II and Ill 50 of all serious mushroom poisonings and 95 of all fatalities caused by 1 genus Amanita Group Amanitin poisoning Common in NYS Basidiocarps of Amantia Gaerina Lepiota most frequently Amanita phaloides quotdeath ca pquot and Amantia virosa quotdeath angelquot has been used as method of death Characters for Identi cation Universal veil volva balllike cap at bottom remnants of universal veil left as scales on cap Partial veil ring connects cap to stipe White cream or free gills don t connect to stipe Toxin Molecules composed of amino acids in double ring CYCLOPEPTIDES 2 types have been distinguished Amatoxins Amanitins 8AA molecules in ring 9 different amatoxins distinguished Phallotoxins Phalloidins 7 AA molecules 7 different phallotoxins distinguished used in research for cell bio Toxicity Data LD5o lethal dose where gt 50 of test population dies When injected into mice phallotoxins are 10X more lethal than cyanide LD5o 2mgkg When taken orally no effect Why perhaps blocked from entering bloodstream Amatoxins much more toxic when eaten l LD5o 01mgkg Amatoxin Effects attacks cell nucleus and bind to RNA polymerase II enzyme transcribes DNA to mRNA RNA synthesis stops l protein synthesis stops l cell dies cells of intestine liver and kidney have rapid turnover Antidotes and Treatment no effective antidote major problem relates to latent period 612hrs ldamage has already been done very difficult to treat 1st step in poisoning cases is to determine if amatoxins are present Meixner Test determines how high levels of toxicity are Squash mushroom tissues on newspaper and dry Add concentrated HCI hydrochloric acid Watch for color change blue is What you want to watch out for high levels of amatoxin induce color change in 1 2 minutes dark blue ower levels won t lead to color change until 20minutes or so Consumption of A virosa and A phaloides 4 distinct stages atent period 624hrs typically 12hrs vioent vomiting diarrhea and abdominal pain lasting 24hrs brief remission of symptoms Honeymoon period colapse of kidney and liver function with secondary effects on heart and brain which leads to coma and death 68 days after consumption What can be done major problem is delay in onset of symptoms and con rming the correct diagnosis treatment consists of removal of toxin from system charcoal haemodialysis increase excretion rate toxin levels are higher in urine than blood support systems electrolyte and uid balance maintain blood sugarlevel Group II Gyromitrin Poisoning Gyr0mitra escuenta accounts for about 2 4 of all fatal mushroom poisonings precursor is gyromitrin which becomes hydrolyzed to monomethylhydrazine MMH boiling point is 875 C lower than water lRocket Fuel quotAll or nothingquot very thin line depends on individual susceptibility Symptoms Appear after 212hrs typically 6 8 fee bloated followed by diarrhea nausea abdominal cramps faintness fever jaundice convulsions and loss of muscle control coma and death after 2 7 days Toxin acts at cellular level toxic to central nervous system gastrointestinal tract and liver Treatment is usually administration of pyridoxine hydrochloride as a speci c physiological antagonist Group III Orellanine Poisoning Cortinarius orelanus C orelanoides C rainierensis Symptoms Poand 1957 132 people poisoned 19 died deaths from kidney failure 23 weeks after onset of symptoms latent period 10 17 days intense thirst burning and dryness of mouth abdominal pain nausea vomiting kidney failure 100200g enough to cause tota kidney failure Group IV Coprine Poisoning Coprinus atramentarius T0XiCitL mushrooms not toxic except when mixed Within 5 days of alcohol consumption hot ushes on faceneck metaic taste throbbing headache tanging limbs nausea and vomiting Mechanism coprine unique AA blocks metabolism of ethyl alcohol at acetaldehyde stage coprine poisoning acetaldehyde poisoning antabuse disulfuram has almost identical action but differs chemically Group V Muscarine poisoning Perspiration Salivation Lacramentation PSL Syndrome Citocybe deabata lnocybe geophyIa stimuates endocrine glands Symptoms PSL constriction of pupils drop in blood pressure burred vision sow heart rate or may actually stop muscle spasms treated with intravenously administered atropine Group VI Ibotenic AcidMuscimol Poisoning Amanita muscaria related to lots of folklore Symptoms muscle spasms atered perception of reality dizziness deep sleep hyperactivity Group VII PsilocybinPsilocin Poisoning Psiocybe Panaeous Conocybe Gymnopiua characterized by dark purple s ores Psychoactive principles are indoe alkaloids psiocybinpsiocin Group VIII Gastrolntestinal Irritants previous 7 types relatively well understood few fungi involved and clearly identi ed as containing speci c toxins which cause wellde ned sets of symptoms Contrastingly Group VIII is a handful of miscellaneous taxa Only common feature is digestive upsetting within 3090mins Symptoms most common vommiting diarrhea abdominal cramps cear up spontaneously in 34hrs little to no info on involved toxins Majority of fungal taxa in this group can be bought at your local grocery store occasional fatalities reported for nearly all of them Summary 4 basic patterns of poisoning emerge Toxins that cause extensive cell destruction overt symptoms only following delay Amantin Group lOrellanine Group II MMH Group III Toxins causing symptoms either when absorbed or when appropriate substrate enters the system Coprine Group IV Toxins acting on CNS causing symptoms immediately Muscimol Group V Psilocybin Group Vl Undetermined toxins acting in alimentary canal Groups V Vll 10815 Rusts Smuts and World Trade Uredinomycetes Uredinales quotRUSTSquot 5000 species 140150genera Ustilagniomycetes Ustilagninales quotSMUTSquot 12005pecies 50genera All are parasites on plants often causing damage to many cultivated crops high eco importance Recognized since ancient times Heterothallic needs 2 compatible individuals to reproduce Obligate Biotroph cannot complete life cycle without host plant saprobically quotTelomycetesquot old class for Rust Fungi included Uredinomycetes and Ustilagniomycetes based on possession of teliospore Teliospore site of karyogamy fusion of 2 nuclei technically part of the basidium Teiospore germinates produces a short germ tube of determinate growth lPromycelium site of meiosis and formation of sterigmata and basiodiospores Distinguishing Characteristics ack basidiocarp cank puffball production of sori circular dots or stripes often seen on underside of leaf no known clamp connections basidiospores form on septate basidia ife cycles very complex with usually 2 different hosts and 5 different spore types Uredinales Rust fungi may produce as many as 5 different sporeproducing stages 0 I II III IV in life cycle Heteroecism 2 taxonomically different host plants needed to nish life cycle seen in most rusts Alternate host stages 0 and Primary host stages II and Ill site where telia form Autoecism entire life cycle completed on 1 host species Stage 0 Spermogonia bearing spermatia n and receptive hyphae n on upper surface of leaf Ex Barberry plant fertiization of the receptive hyphae by spermatia initiates dikaryon and formation of aecia Stage I Aecia bearing aeciospores nn aeciospores infect primary host lower leaf structure aeciospores produced on alternate host eg Barberry infect primary host eg grasses These spores can travel extensive distances and very quickly Stage II Uredinia j bearing urediniospores nn reinfect primary host repeating stage ampifies disease within primary host uredinia can eventually develop into tela Fungi can infect plant through the stomata very vulnerable spot Appressorium special cell site where fungi will build up pressure at to penetrate the plant Possibe treatment for crop disease is to breed plants with thin shallow stomata l fungi don t detect site to make appressorium Stage III Telia bearing teliospores nn gt 2n final stage on primary host overwinters as diploid meiosis arrested at prophase direct germination to basidia teliospores blow off plant onto soil leading to Stage IV Stage IV Basidia bearing basidiospores n in springtime teliospore germinates promycelium on ground dipoid nucleus migrates into promycelium and undergoes meiosis 4 haploid nuclei migrate into developing sterigmata amp are incorporated into basidiospores basidiospores reinfect alternate host See Raven Biology of Plants for detailed description of life cycle Life Cycle Pattern of Uredinales 1 Macrocyclic forms all 5 reproductive stages 2 Demicyclic forms uredinial stage is absent goes from spermatia directly to telia 3 Microcyclic forms both aeciospores and urediniospores are absent teliospore is the only binucleate spore produced Remember Heteroecious amp Autoecious Examples of distantly related hosts Heteroecious Puccinia gramnis O and l on barberry bushes dicot II and III on various grasses monocot Cronartium ribcola blister rust 0 and l on white pines gymnosperm II and III on currants amp gooseberries angiosperms Uredinopsis 05m undae O and l on balsam r gymnosperm II and III on cinnamon fern Ustilaginales Smuts No sex organs monokaryons nonpathogenic but dikaryon is pathogenic Heterothallic mating of compatible spores Teliospores Mary Palm 4th PPG National Mycologist APHS mission protect US from unwanted plant and animal pests 15 PPQ port identi ers for fungi on plants and plant products entering US Name is important based on this the material is allowed to enter be treated or be rejected Historv of Plant Quarantine France 1960 No Barberry planting Most of Europe suffered from Plasmopara grafted grape vines USA one of the last countries to enact federal legislation 1912 despite previous devastating introductions chestnut blight Karnal Blunt Karnal India 1931 minor disease until 1970s 1972 was reported in Mexico by 1972 many countries had established quarantines to prevent introductions USA established quarantine in 1981 and USDA developed detailed plan of action WhL USA is world s leading exporter of wheat 33 of global export market in wheat annually worth 5 billion Karnal Blunt fungus discovered in Arizona in 1996 Fied by eld survey of entire country Conclusions Knowledge of fungal biodiversity fundamental to making wellinformed decisions KNOW NAMES need to predict how fungi will act in new environments baseline info essential Urgent rapid increase in international trade for it has nowhere to go but Up END OF NOTES