Psych Unit 2 Long Term Memory
Psych Unit 2 Long Term Memory Psych 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Arig Aboulenein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Long Term Memory LTM provides storage for info for extended periods of time 0 Duration approx longer than 20 seconds limitless storage capacity quick retrieval with little effort Encoding transforming information so it can be retained Info is encoded through eaborate rehearsal selfreference effect visua imagery giving info some deep meaning 4 Types of LTM 1 Procedural Memory how to perform different skills 2 Episodic Memory memory of speci c events 3 Autobiographical Memory memory of life events birthdays a wedding 4 Semantic Memory general knowledge basic facts Long Term Memory l l l a N W Explicit ImpIICIt memory with consc39ous recall conscious recall I l a l W W W Episodic Semantic Procedure events you general motor skills have knowledge how to tie your experienced facts shoes Organization of LTM Clustering Clustering related items are grouped together poor recall happens when there are random presentation Semantic Network Models mental links form between concepts a concept is activated and spread in any direction causes activation of other association in the net work saying quotredquot can lead to thinking about fruit re truck alert re Tip of the Tongue TOT Experience knowing info but unable to receive it people can give partial response The Serial Position Effect tendency to remember items of the beginning and end of a list but NOT the middle 0 Primary effect infoleTM Recency effect infoDSTM Encoding Speci city people remember things better if they are in the same environment as they learned the info 0 Contest effects remember info when in the same setting in which you learned Mood Congruence studying in a bad mood may cause you to recall info when you are in a bad mood you want to make conditions match the environment Retrieval Cues process of accessing info Retrieval cues hints that triggers a memory Retrieval cue failure inability to recall info Memory Hermann Ebbinghaus using nonsense syllables most of what we forget is lost soon after we learn it Depends on 1 how well you encoded it 2 how meaningful the material was 3 rehearsal Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve is a chart that shows the basic pattern of forgetting there is a rapid loss of info Why do we forget encoding failure encoding was not encoded into long term memory Prospective memory error retrieval cue failure faiure to remember what need to be done in the future Decay Theory new memory is formedljldistinct structural or chemical change Challenge info can be remembered decades later lDecay Theory is very unlikely to be true Interference Theory memories interfere with memories forgetting is not caused by the passing of time 1 Retroactive interference retrobackwards new memories mess with old info 2Proactive interference proforward od memory mess with new info D ja vu brief but strong memory of a scene or event 1 of 6 people experience it decreases with age 0 Causes features in a situation trigger the sensation of matching features ease to a disruption in source memory Encoding failureinattentional blindness Inattentional blindness is the failure to see stimuli that is in plane sight Imperfect Memory 0 Details change over time details can be added subtracted or exaggerated Misinfo effect happens after an event can distort eyewitness recollection Source confusion true source of memory can be forgotten you think it s your idea but it already exists Eyewitness Testimony recall is not an exact replica of original events recall is a construction built and rebuilt Brian Structures 0 Hippocampus inside the center of the brain encodes and transfers new explicit memory to long term memory Cerebellum on the bottom of the brain memories involving movement Medial Temporal Lobe not visible encodes and transfers new explicit memories to long term memory Amygdala circle next to Hippocampus encodes emotional aspects of the memories Prefrontal cortex on the front portion of the brain memory involving the sequence of events Memory Consolidation gradua physical process of converting new long term memory to a stable memory 0 Amnesia severe memory loss 1 Retrograde amnesia inabiity to remember past info or events 2 Anterograde amnesia inabiity to form new memories 0 HM He had his hippocampus removed which resulted in him not able to form new long term memories Judgment and Decision Making Decisions making a choice between alternatives Reasoning drawing a conclusion Heuristics The Rule of Thumbquot or mental short cuts short cutsikely to get you the right answer not fool proof very help full Used when 1 solving multiple problems 2 the problem is similar to previous encountered problems 3 problem is too simple 4 solutions do not have to be perfect Satis cing satisyfysufficing when do don t have to nd the best solution Heuristics can be wrong Bias heuristics go wrong there are a dozen different heuristics avaHabH y authorty Availability Heuristics uses immediate examples that come to mid leads to mistaken judgments about certain things Illusory Correlation when it is believed that a correlation exist but is weaker than assumed o Superstitions a belief on myths magic or irrational thoughts Ex black cat crosses your path 5 years of bad luck 0 Prejudices the belief in a relationship between a speci c ethnicity and how they act Representativeness Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they match Prototype the most typical instance for a certain concept Ex Tabby for cat Stereotype oversimpli ed generalizations about a group or type of people
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