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Date Created: 11/06/14
BIO NOTES SCIENCE AND BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Anthropology study of humankind across placetime Physical anthropology human biological bicultural variation 1 Product of evolutionary history 2 Product of individual history environment climate social culture Study living people or primates Franz Boas father of American Anthropology Interdisciplinary science Six steps of humanness 1 Bipedalism 2 Nonhoning chewing 3 Material culturetool use 4 Hunting 5 Speech 6 Dependence on domesticated food LECTURE Anthropology study of people across space and time Cultural study of living non Western culture How people liveinteract family structure religion Archaeology cultural anthropology of the past Examine physical remains to predict how people used to live Linguistic study of human language Unique to humans Language effects world view perceptions of yourselfothers Biological physical evolution anatomyphysiology Primatology paleontology forensic American Anthropology 1900 American Indians going extinct Wanted to collect as much data as possible Left a legacy for the discipline Science systematic knowedge based practices that relies on empirical data Empirical direct observation Scientific method observation of a phenomena Hypothesis theoryexplanation Test to be validinvalid Components of science 1 Logical reasonable rational 2 Can it be proven wrong 3 Repeatable 4 Results reviewed by peers 5 Science attempts to be objective 6 Parsemoneous simple explanation is best 7 Science is public journal 8 Predictable can it help us understand the future Limitations Science is one way of looking at world Epistemology how do we know what we know Ontology questions of the nature of existence 1 Aesthetic can t be tested artmusic 2 Metaphysical why are we here What is our purpose 3 Supernatural beings not subject to testing Science correlation gt causation Truth metaphysical about meaning v Fact Medical Anthropology how health and perceptions of health are related to cultural perspective Bio cultural anthropology HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND ANTHROPOLOGY CHAPTER 2 Darwin Natural selection Adaptive radiation diversification of ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environments Geology study of earth Uniformitarianism James Hutton theory that natural processes that occur today were same in the past Paleontology study of fossils Catastrophism Georges Cuvier doctrine asserting that cataclysmic events are responsible for geologic changes instead of evolution Taxonomy classification of life forms Carolus Linnaeus Binomial nomenclature system System of Nature Evolutionary biology Lamarckism theory of evolution through inheritance of characteristics in which an organism can pass on features during its lifetime Mechanisms of inheritance Gemmules Darwin proposed these units of inheritance Blending inheritance theory that a phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of parents phenotypes Mendelian inheritance principles associated with the transmission of genetic material forming the basis of genetics law of segregation and law of independent assortment Evolutionary synthesis a unified theory of evolution that combines genetics with natural selection Population genetics focuses on changes in gene frequencies and effects of changes on adaptation and evolution Mutation spontaneous change in existing gene Gene flow spread of new genes from one population to another Genetic drift random change in frequency of alleles that occurs in small populations over time it increases genetic difference between two related but not interbred populations LECTURE Ancient Greeks Pre Science learning Beginning of Natural History Philosophy interested in workings of natural world Emphasis on learning of natural processes that follow mathematical trends World as orderly and reasonable Aristotle 384 322BC Plato Socrates Rome Basis of Western thought for next 2000 years Prescience learning Observations not based on empirical observation Lack of process Pliny the Elder AD 2379 Wrote Natural History Eruption of Mt Vesuvius Galen AD 129216 Roman physician Systematic analysis of body s systems Against Roman law to dissect human body Used animals instead Basis of Western medicine for 1000 years Does it work or doesn t it Augustine of Hippo AD 354 430 Emphasized separation between man and nature Difference between body and soul Soul is eternal not body Interpreted Creation as no literal Fall of Rome Dark Ages Fall of western Roman empire Educational systems collapse Ancient knowledge preserved my monks and surviving priesthood Wealthy families educated children by buying teachers from the market Teachers had to sell themselves due to debt Midieval Scholasticism Expansion of learning Method of critical thought Emphasis on reasoning and inference Related to New Testament Establishment of university Italy England Spain France University as independent learning establishment Thomas Aquinas 1225 1274 Helped reconcile new questions of faith in reason Crusades introduced Aristotle and Islamic learning Emphasized logic Recognized importance of changemutation in natural world Yes man is part of nature LECTURE The Reformation broke Catholic monopoly on education creating competition and allowing opportunity for new ideas But it started division between religion and science Most people were educated by the Church Church had monopoly on education Great schism in Western Christianity 1517 Martin Luther leader of Protestants Counter reformation western world had division of secular authority state and church Ushered in new ideas England Queen Elizabeth is head of state and head of state religion Scientific Revolution Copernicus 1473 1542 Challenged Ptolemaic System earth center Earth revolved around sun heliocentric Galileo 1564 1642 Confirmed heliocentric universe Pope at this time didn t prescribe to this idea Intellectual spat Galileo was an asshole Isaac Newton 1642 1727 Modern physics Forerunners of Evolutionary Theory John Ray 1627 1705 first person to develop system for categorized plants and animals by appearance using empirical observation Carolus Linnaeus 1707 1778 Systems of Nature invented binomial nomenclature Includes human kind as part of nature classified with primates James Hutton 1726 1797 Earth was millions of years old Processess erosion sediment Uniformitarianism natural processes happen in present happened in past Charles Lyell 1797 1875 Father of modern geology Reinforces uniformitarianism Evolution Theory Comte de Buffon 1707 1788 Argued that animals that move to new climates would changeadapt Faced criticism from Thomas Jefferson Georges Cuvier 1769 1832 Interested in fossils Principle of extinction Catastrophism natural disasters that wiped out animals Jean Baptiste de Lamarck 1744 1829 Lamarckian evolution inheritance of acquired characteristics change occurs within an individuals lifetime that is passed on to future generations Africa ground eating animals gt giraffes Evolution biological change through time Acquired characteristics Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 Demography Populations expand geometrically Pigs have 6 babies 3 boys and 3 girls each have 6 pigs etc Limited food supply Faminesdisease constrain populations Politically controversial Potato famine in Ireland Charles Darwin 1809 1882 Transmutation of species generally accepted Studied at Cambridge Became interested in Natural History Gentlemen Naturalist roundtheworld expedition Natural selection Alfred Russel Wallace 1823 1913 Explorernaturalist Amazon Indonesia Independently discovered natural selection Spurred Darwin to publish Natural Selection Organisms compete for food some traits help them survive gt passed on biological change Blending result of motherfather reduces variation Darwin didn t know source of variation CHAPTER 3 LECTURE Sexual Selection Traits developed that enables reproductive success traits passed on Reproductive strategy Develop in femalechoice species that men are more aesthetic Humans blonde hair Artificial Selection Selective breeding by humans Wolf genome gt dogs Domesticated animals with variation selected by humans Ex pigs food dogs helpers Traits selected for by humans Problems with NS Criticisms Mechanism for inheritance not well understand Blending of traits reduced variation Opposition from geneticists Gregor Mendel 1822 1884 Augustinian Monk Experimented with pea plants Concluded traits were discretely inherited Could be traced over generations Went unnoticed at the time Mendelian Genetics Mendelianmonogenetic traits one gene responsible for traits Crossbred plants to find dominantrecessive alleles What did Mendel discover Genes control certain traits Alleles different expressions of these traits Dominantrecessives alleles Codominant alleles both expressions of an allele can occur at one time EX blood type Mendelian genetics simple inheritance Monogenic traits Mendelian Laws Law of Segregation One allele is inherited from each parent Law of Independent Assortment Traits inherited independently from each other Rediscovery of Mendelian Genetics Mendel s work found by 3 scientists Replicated Mendel s research Genotype genetic code Phenotype physical expression Modern Evolutionary Synthesis Mendelians argued genetics was incompatible with natural selection Modern synthesis Julian Huxley Earnst Mayr Theodosius Dobzhansky Beginning of population genetics Evolutionary Synthesis Genes and alleles responsible for variation NS acts on variation Mutations gene flow genetic drift Thomas Hunt Morgan 1866 1945 Chromosomes carry genetic material CHAPTER 2 LECTURE Evolutionary Synthesis Genes and alleles responsible for variation NS acts on tis variation Mutation gene flow genetic drift DNA James Watson 1928 Francis Crick 1916 2004 Rosalind Franklin 1920 1958 Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA Chemicals that make up chromosomes Double helix shape tightly wound Provides genetic code Consists of phosphate deoxyribose sugar and 4 nitrogen bases Nuclear and Mitochondrial Structure of DNA Fourbases Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Bonding Adeninethymine Guanine cytosine Cell divison in Somatic Cells Mitosis 4 phases Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Results 2 identical daughter cells Cell division in Sex Cells Gametes Chromosomes enhance variation Cross over Exchange genetic material translocation Nondisjunction Results of 45 or 47 chromosomes Trisomies Trisomy 21 Down s 18 Edwards Syndrome 13 Patau Syndrome Sex related nondisjunctions Trisomy X XXX syndrome XXY Klinefelter s syndrome Trisomy XYY Monosomy Monosomy X Turner Syndrome DNA Protein Synthesis Proteins Make up tissues and the growth repair and functions of those tissues Froms amino acids 20 Essential amino acids CHAPTER 2 LECTURE Genes Sequence of DNA on a chromosome locus Structural genes Regulatory genes Homeotic hox genes Species Biological species Can interbreed Produce fertile offspring Population deme Gene pool total number of genes shared by reproductive members Biospecies Ernst Mayrv figured out geographic isolation Group of potentially interbreeding populations which are reproductively isolated from each other Geographic isolation Physical separation Behavioral isolation Two different groups can reproduce but don t recognize one another as mates Morphological isolation Isolation based upon appearance of 2 organisms Unless raised together they won t recognize one another Microevolution Small changes within a species alleles Occurs over time Gradually accumulate Observable Macroevolution Major changes speciation Hard to observe in longlived organisms Long generation time Eventually don t recognize one another as mates Observable in simpler organisms Antibiotics TB Speciation development of new species Types of Speciation Directional selection Gradual change after long period of time Distribution of traits shift percentage of genesalleles in population where certain trains are more common Stabilizing selection average condition favor Genetic diversity decreases and population mean stabilizes for particular trait value Disruptive selection Relatively rapid Middle of distribution gone camel hump in graph and 2 different species Disruptive Selection 90 Stabilizing Solomon Dmchon1 S0l quotCh0n Gene flow Helps stabilize population Not speciation Movement of genes across geographic spaces Genetic drift Chance fluctuation of alleles in small isolated populations Mating patterns Positiveassortive mating Mate with people like you ethnicity SES Negative assortive mating Mate with people not like you Founder Effect Small number of individuals founds a new population Leads to loss of genetic variation Ex Mutiny on the Bounty Founder effect Population bottleneck prominent traits diseases Isolated behavior Ex Amish Christmas diseasehemophilia Cohen syndrome European Jews Tay Sachs Confined to ghettos inbreeding Affects nervous system Simple inheritance Punnett Squares Can predict genotypes and phenotypes if parent s genotypes are known Alleles should be in a state of equilibrium mathematically Homozygous Genotype TT tt all Tt Phenotype all T Heterozygous Genotype Tt Tt TT Tt Tt tt Phenotype 75 T 25 tt Genetic equilibrium HardyWeinberg Geoffrey Hardy Wilhelm Weinberg No mutation No genetic drift No gene flow Small population Mating random All members in group produce same number of offspring pq1 pquot22pq qquot21 Humans and Natural Selection Malaria Parasitic protazoan Spread by mosquitos Reproduce in liver Attached to red blood cells Cells rupture Fever vomitting nausea Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia Africa Shape of red blood cell shape causes lack of oxygen and creates clogs in capmanes Simple inheritance Ss Co dominant trait both expressions come through with heterozygous condition Not enough oxygen for plasmodia to reproduce SURVIVAL of heterozygous balanced polymorphism People on ends of spectrum unable to reproduce SS homozygous nonsickle cell Ss heterozygous ss homozygous Probably won t survive adulthood without treatment Standing water mosquitos prevalence of malaria Human behavior causes increase of disease Biological response to condition with sickle cell BIOCULTURAL EFFECT Other Hemoglobin disorders Thalassemia S Europe Middle East different cell shape Homozygous condition Hemoglobin clumps in red blood cells Anemia Heterozygous are able to functionprotect Glocose6phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD Affects oxygen in bloodstream Favism side effect bean Gene Flow Blood Types and Migration ABO blood system Rh factor Simple inheritance phenotypes result from single gene Useful for reconstruction human migration trace human migration Frequency differs A B AB 0 Blood Types and European Agriculture Introduced 7000 YA Crops mostly came from middle east Invasion of farmers from ME V Gordon Childe Gradual expansion with gene flow Luca Cavilli Sforza Small groups of people moving throughout Europe intermarrying with local huntersgatherers BLOOD TYPES and AGRICULTURE neither correct Childe hypothesis Should see strong genetic similarity between EU and ME CavilliSforza Some genetic mixture and gradient of traits TRANSFER of IDEAS What is Biocultural Anth Seeks to understand how culture affects our biological capabilities Change throughout time can be result of culture Employs scientific method to answer Human biology and culture Our biology comes from ancestors DNA NS We live in culturenature Cultural systems affect human reproduction Culture Expands Biological Capabilities Culture is used to survive in inhospitable environments clothing of natives Culture can challenge our ability to adapt Biocultural approach Views humans as biological social and cultural beings in relation to the environment Views human biology and body s system as dynamic and responsive to change