Chapter 3 Notes+Week 6 Lecture Notes
Chapter 3 Notes+Week 6 Lecture Notes ARCH - 10001 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Irene Huda on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH - 10001 - 001 at Kent State University taught by David Hughes (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Understanding Architecture Week 6 Chapter 3 Vocabulary lONUlPUJNH 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Physical structure bones of the building do the work Perceptual structure what we see of a building Empathy imagining oneself inside something elseamp feeling what that thing feels Lintel a beam inserted in a wall to support the wall above it Trabeated postamp lintel system 2D or frame 3D Cantilever beam extended over end of column made possible by continuity of beam material over post Classical Orders 5 columnar types developed by the Greeks Doric Ionic Corinthian and Romans Tuscan Composite a Greek columns base lowest shaft main middle capital b Greek temple base i Stylobate upper layer column platformfoundation ii Stereobate 2step bottom platform Entablature stylized assembly of beamsamp crossbeam endsamp resting on top of column a 3 Doric layers i Architrave lower main beam ii Triglyphs middle alternating stylized beam ends iii Metopes middle alternating sculpted in ll panels iv Comice upper several progressively projecting moldings b Ionic amp Corinthian layers i Architrave 2 3 vertical at surfacesfaces ii Frieze middle at panel lled w continuous narrative band of relief sculpture iii Comice upper several progressively projecting moldings Doric order most massive Greek order 465X diameter 14 heightentablature a Shaft rises from stylobate platform no base 20 broad utes w sharp outer edges i Flutes shallow vertical groovesindentations b Capital on top of shaft banded necking echinus acabus i Echinus gently outwardswelling on top of necking of capital ii Acabus final square slab on top of echinus of capital Ionic order more slender than Doric 9X diameter 15 heightentablature a Shaft omamental base 24 utes w attened edges b Capital i Volutes unique curled on top of circular egganddart molding ii Pulvinus swelling pillow connects volutes on top of egganddart molding Corinthian order more slender than Ionic 10X diameter 15 heightentablature a Shaft base similar to Ionic 24 utes b Capital tallest of Greek orders 23 concentric bands of outwardcurling acanthus leaves Tuscan Doric order more slender than Doric 7X diameter a Shaft added base no utes smooth b Capital similar to Doric but more strongly articulated Composite order Ionic volutes atop Corinthian acanthus leaves most sculpturally elaborate Engaged half column column merged w wall decorative Pilaster at pierlike projection on wall baseamp capital correspond to 1 Classical order Frame formed by extending postsamp lintels in 3 dimensions stone Valley Temple wood timbers wood lumber conventional home steel commercial Balloon frame developed in midUS 1830 home construction made of slender wood members studs Arch masonry alternative for spanning openings can be made of stone usually semicircular a Advantage easier to buildhandleamp can span greater distances compared to stone lintels b Disadvantage all voussoirs must be supported by centering during construction semicircular form creates lateralsideways forces that cause arch base to spread unless restrained c Voussoirs small wedgeshaped parts of masonry arch compressive forces d Centering semicircular wooden framework used to support voussoirs during construction 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 e Keystone uppermost voussoir locks arch in place Arcade formed by placing several arches end to end lateral forces of arches counteractcancel each other except ends often raised on slender columnspiers Arcuated composed of numerous arches Tunnelbarrel vault formed by semicircular arch pushed through space Groin vault formed by intersecting 2 barrel vaults at right angles Dome formed by rotating an arch about its center vertical axis symbolic of overarching heavens Hemispheric dome formed by rotating a semicircular arch about its center vertical axis Concrete developed by Roman builders artificial stone water caementa binding material cement derived from lime Caementa Latin assorted aggregate pieces of broken rock Pozzuolana binding agent in Roman concrete volcanic ash that forms artificial stone when mixed w water Pendentive curvedtriangleshaped spherical segment allows for circular dome over square plan Rib vault consists of freestanding diagonal arches ribs along groin vault s lines of intersectionamp outer edges less centering needed 1 set of centering supports for repeated bays Truss made up of straight wood timberssteel members arranged in triangular shapescells can span large distancesamp enclose large spaces Space frame formed by extending a truss in 3 dimensions can span large distances Geodesic dome formed by curving a truss in 3 dimensions made of steel Tipi tent dwelling originally used by central plains natives highly sophisticated aerodynamic refinements Lecture Notes Building components oor walls roof 0 Ultimate oorearth 0 Ultimate roofsky Building materials wood masonry concrete steel 0 Masonry manmade units of earth materials ex stone Building systems architectural structural plumbing HVAC electrical 0 Hheating 0 Vventilation of fresh air natural vs artificial 0 ACair conditioning Basic Elements of Structure 0 Wall loadbearing I Ex Frank Lloyd Wright s Unity Temple Jerusalem West Wall I Ancient vs Modern walls 0 Vertical Slab I Ex I M Pei s Huntington Ave Boston building 0 Frame postamp beamcolumnamp lintel I Ex Parthenon Stonehenge MIT main building Paul Rudolph s gov building Gund Hall Harvard ancient Rome I Cantilever 0 Tensile webbing tension I Ex Frei Otto s Olympic Stadium Munich Germany Shanghai Minneapolis building I Tentmost basic tensile structure Engineering Components 0 Civilsoils earth bore into ground to see stratalayers foundations support utilities may require grading done before building ex gas 0 Structuralbeams columns slabs tensile structures 0 MechanicalHVAC plumbing supplyamp drainage I Ex Renzo Pianoamp Richard Rogers Georges Pompidou Center Paris France 0 Electricalpower wiring lighting Columns O O 0 Modern vs ancient Artistic ex Charlotte NC Stylistic Building Materials more in depth 0 Woodlight frame heavy timber lstlog cabin 0 Masonrybrick shellclay fired block stone 0 Concretepour inplace onsite precast 0 Steellight gauge framing structural tensile Problems 0 Firecan affect all 4 powerful used in making building materials 0 Watercan affect all 4 0 Windcan affect wood maybe masonry not steel 0 Populationcan affect wood decreased occupancy maybe concreteamp steel increased occupancy
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