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Week 1 Notes

by: Rachel Sanchez

Week 1 Notes Biology 220

Rachel Sanchez
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Jennifer Doherty

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Week 1 Notes with relevant diagrams. Subjects are thyroid, insulin, glucose, and pain sensing. This finishes the gastric bypass module and begins the root canal module
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Jennifer Doherty
Class Notes
biology 220, bio 220, Physiology, action potential, insulin, glucose, thyroid, week 1, gastric bypass
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Sanchez on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 220 at University of Washington taught by Jennifer Doherty in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 354 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Week 1 Notes Day 1 What happens when we lose fat 0 C02 going into triglyceride by cellular respiration o A triglyceride is made up of glycerol and fatty acids 0 Fat doesn t immediately go into cellular respiration Metabolism effects fat breakdown it allows us to take energy from fat 0 Fat is broken down into two piecesglycerol and fatty acidsto be small enough to cross the cell membrane 0 Glycerol goes through gycoysis 0 Fatty acids go into the mitochondria to react with oxygen The products of this are carbon dioxide and water When are CHO added and lost from the body 0 Physiological processes 0 Rate in drinking water liquid food eating Not necessarily just eating because not all of it is digested and absorbed 0 Rate out breathing out C02 and H20 sweating H20 urinating H20 undigested food passed as feces Metabolic rate determines how much is breathed out sitM11 A Energy is conserved based on physical laws but how do you gain energy Note 1 Professor will focus more on mass than on energy 2 For SMRF models structures are nouns and the arrows need verbs For the Weight Loss model that was created for Nina last week 0 Structures needed 0 Stomach Small intestine Blood Big organic atoms in food Mitochondria Fat C02 molecules 000000 What controls the speed at which a person gains energy and CH0 0 Rate in 0 Exercise Less fat tells the brain and the hormone leptin that it is time to eat more 0 Different set hunger levels per personthis is genetically determined or de ned by having eaten a lot for a long period of time 0 Size of stomach based on genetics and gastric bypass RouxenY Gastric Bypass The stomach has acid but very few enzymes 0 After RouxenY the only place with digestive juices is the jejunum o This decreases the rate of absorption and digestion because there is a smaller area and time o This means more is excreted as feces How is hunger signaled in the body Ghrelin hormones tells you that you are hungry Leptin hormones are released from fat and tell the brain you have fat and don t need to eat anymore 0 Satiety hormone CCK tells you that your brain you have eaten and is excreted from the stomach Insulin affects glucose levels and tells the brain there is sugar in the blood There are nerves with different type of receptors that can understand what is going on in the blood and organs When a hormone and receptor bind they have an af nity 0 We can all have a different af nity 0 We might all need a different amount of the hormone to understand we are full 0 The af nity is based on a different nucleic acid sequencelehis is genetic diversity If insulin is increased in the blood what has happened to glucose If glucagon is high what has happened to glucose levels Day 2 Decrease in blood glucosepancreas secretes glucagon from alpha cesmore glucagon in bloodstream glucagonhormonereaches the liver and signals liver to breakdown glycogenglycogen broken down into glucose monomersglucose in bloodincreased blood glucose 0 Glucose monomers now go back to cells to be used in cellular respiration or stored as fat in case it is needed for biosynthesis o Monomers build instructions of the body and are stored 0 mRNA needed for instructions but proteins made of amino acids which come from food Increase in blood glucosepancreas is signaled to release insulinincrease in insulin in the circulating bloodglucose is taken up by the celseaving the bloodstream decreases blood glucose 0 Uptake occurs in Metabolic energy muscle cells all cells Fat synthesisadipose cells all cells have the ability because all can make membranes Glycogen synthesis liver cells muscle cells for stored energy for exercise Neurons but insulin shouldn t impact uptake for neurons SMRF is used so you know what is expected on exams What does insulin do o What mechanism does insulin use for transportation Facilitated diffusion o Glucose is large and can t go through membrane 0 Glucose isn t pumped across the membrane 0 How does increased glucose uptake occur because of insulin 0 Vesicles allows GLUT onto the membrane in response to insulin signal 0 Using vesicles GLUT and glucose as structures explain the mechanism lnsulin binds to an insulin receptor and that leads to phosphorylation of the receptor Other molecules in the cell interact and begin a signal transduction cascade o It is this cascade that allows GLUTvesicles they are bound to each other to attach to the cell membrane through exocytosis Predict and Defend How can changes in diets cause weight gain assuming the same calorie intake How can it change BMI Blood Glucos Levels Dramatic insulin increase signals fat storage in cells The glucose can then be removed from blood and stored as fat Day 3 Glycemic index 0 There was an experiment where three kids ate three different types of oats o The instant oats kids ate more 0 Carbohydrates don t really matter in this situation but glycemic index does Glycemic index is controlling blood sugar levels 0 Carbohydrates with lower glycemic index take longer to digest which means less glucose into the blood at a time and less rapid spikes How is the rate a person loses CHO atoms de ned 0 Breathing out C02 and H20 0 Metabolic rate 0 Energy can also be given off as heat Thyroid What effects metabolic rate Thyroid hormones Structures for boxandarrow models 0 Thyroid Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Blood T3 and T4 TSH TRH o lodine Inhibitionnegative feedback thyroid hormones inhibit the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus Iodine enters thyroid and is used to produce thyroid hormones Negative feedback amount of something regulates the production of something 0 Advantageous only make the amount necessary so energy expenditure isn t wasted Why are hypothalamus and anterior pituitary under negative OOOOOO feedback Hyperthyroidism Ideas 0 Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary not producing signaling molecules 0 Could be a tumor and feedback is ignored 0 Signal receptor not working and so not thyroid interaction 0 Genetic mutation Symptoms 0 Too much thyroid hormone effects energy levestired o Might increase rate of consumption of food 0 Thyroid controls metabolism rateincreased metabolism for hyperthyroidismeads to weight loss What would hypothyroidism look like mechanistically and symptom wise Day 4 Scenario Mohammad a patient undergoes a root canal He feels hot and warm in the room and the window is quickly opens it and leaves it slightly open He is given Novocain and the procedure goes ne Symptoms to be expected are sensitivity to both hot food and drink and cold food and drink His symptoms end up to be A stiffjaw Feeling hot Dry mouth Rigid neck Sweating Feat Weak What could be the cause of his symptoms Maybe something got in his mouth from the open window and induced an immune response Bacteria from dirt outside Complications from anesthetic Damaged the nerve from drilling too deep In ammation response that extended to both neck and jaw Neurotoxin like botulism Neurons could be continuously polarized and affecting sodium potassium pumps that synapse on muscles Allergic response to Novocain How is the body able to receive and transmit pain to the brain Pain Stimulu Neuron l Anatomy Multipolar l Bipolar l Pseudo l The stimulus is detected at receptorssensory neuronnterneuron synapse at spinal cordljafferent neuron to brain 0 Peripheral nervous system sensory neurons and motor neurons Central nervous system spinal cord and brain we Afferent neurons transmit sensory information to brain are Efferent transmit information from brain to motor Changing neurons is called chemical signaling because of the use of a neurotransmitter o This occurs before and after usage with interneuron How do muscles move 1 The brain tells the 2 Efferent nerve to move the muscle 3 Interneuron passes on the information to 4 Motor neurons Parts of a neuron Dendrite receive stimuli Soma cell body including the nucleus Axon passes on chemical message to axon terminal making 1000 s of action potentials and connecting synapses at a time for constant communication and an integrated response Ohm s Law V IR 0 Current is the measure of the amount of movement CVotage divided by the resistance o Flux is the rate of something moving and is equal to the size of the driving force divided by the amount of resistance 0 Voltagecurrent X resistance OR Electrical driving force divided by resistance Driving forces 1 Chemical gradientconcentration gradientchemical driving force a This moves from high to low 2 Electrical gradientdifference in charge across the membrane membrane potential Resistance 1 Channels a Voltagegated b Leaky 2 Membrane Solubility from high to low Oxyge Small and nonpolar Carbon dioxi Alcc Water Small and uncharged Glucos Large and uncharged Ions Huge charged Small nonpolar and lipid soluble things can travel across with on some resistance y GUIde Flux 1 What thing is the question asking about Use models as needed 2 There are two driving forces the electrical and chemical gradients and which way are they moving a Electrical gradient due to the difference in charge across the membrane including negative and positive b Chemical gradient also called concentration gradient has a direction based on concentration moving from high to low 3 How many driving forces are acting in this situation How strong is the driving force Use arrows in your diagram 4 What types of resistance are there a Examples membrane and Channels Note The sodium potassium pump moves against the gradient as does anything using ATP Day 5 What type of channels and ions add to action potentials SodiumPotassium pump sets the concentration gradient 0 Every cell in your body has voltagegated channels and the NaK pump because every cell has a membrane potential Voltagegated channels Na Kquot39 are the ones that OutSIde 150mlquotI 5mm propagate action InSIde 15mM 150mM potentias Na K v l l At what point does your mechanosensitive Na receptor sense pain 1 Stimulus has to reach threshold at 55mV o Na has to move into the cell from high to low concentration and depolarization nearby voltagegated sodium channels 0 The body doesn t sense the pain via a nociceptor until it reaches threshold because under that it will not depolarize the membrane cause a change in membrane potential and signal voltagegated sodium channels to open 3 stages 1 Initiation reach threshold via a stimulus or neurotransmitter 2 Propagation action potentialselectrical signaling 3 Synapse send to a neuron or a muscle


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