BISC Notes week of 10/5
BISC Notes week of 10/5 BISC 1005
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
How and why we digest food We cannot digest food without breaking them down 0 This is how we utilize the nutrients Enzymatic reactions 0 Reactant undergoes some type of change product 0 Must go through change in order to produce something different a process which requires activation energy 0 Produces ATP as a result as well 0 Enzymes are biological catalysts Need these because otherwise reaction would be too slow Enzymes lower the energy of activation and increase the speed of reaction 0 Could be one million times the actual rate of reaction Structure 0 3 dimensional shape determines function 0 Active site is area within the enzyme Substrate binds to the site 0 Equivalent to the reactant in a normal chemical reaction Anytime a reaction requires a substrate this means that an enzyme is involved 0 This is how amount of energy needed for reaction is reduced 0 In the end it will release the individual products that initially made up the substrate 0 Anabolic Enzyme has an induced t Storing energy for later use 0 Catabolic Big substrate that docks into a different type of enzyme changes shape through different process Breaking down energy for current use 0 Metabolism C02 H20 l glucose l glycogen Endergonic reaction series storing energy 0 Anabolic building up something big Happens during photosynthesis 0 Makes monomers into polymers during dehydration synthesis Break down glycogen by adding water through hydrolysis This makes it a cataboic reaction l ceuar respiration o Exergonic reaction Metabolic pathways in the body involve several reactions There are several intermediates 0 Each one has its own enzyme 0 Enzyme Function Enzymes that are in a series ie Cellular respiration actually occur together This makes it happen faster because you minimize the distance they have to travel and maximizes molecular collisions o Digestion 0 Nutrition Nutrients play critical roles to 0 Provide chemical building blocks 0 Provide energy Facilitate reactions Animals are consumers We need such components to utilize them 0 Ingestion digestion absorption elimination 0 Consumers Animals eat other organisms in some way or another 0 Absorption Outside the cell we consume monosaccharides disaccharides etc 0 As we consume proteins we need to degrade them Minerals and vitamins o In humans digestive tract is essentially one big long tube that has different stages that produces different cavities that makes up stomach glands epithelial cells 0 In the mouth we produce an enzyme 0 Chemical salivary amylase Breaks down starch to make mucus Physical teeth tongue taste buds hard and soft palate smell 0 Digesting starch l glucose 0 Very little absorption 0 Pancreas Chemical has different enzymes that it releases breaks down Mouth 0 Chemical salivary amylase mucus Physical smelltaste tongue teeth hardsoft palate Digestion starch Absorption glucose Esophagus Chemical no enzymes mucus Physical smooth muscle peristalsis o Sphincters upperlower o Epiglottis shuts off respiratory system from throat to prevent food from going into respiratory system 0 No digestion No absorption Stomach Chemical HClacid denatures protein 0 Pepsin enzyme in stomach can chew it up mucus protects stomach lining 0 Physical rugae folds churn the food allowing for more ef cient digestion pfonic sphincter o Digestion breaking down proteins 0 Absorption amino acids and alcohol 0 You only get about 10 of nutrients here Pancreas Chemical enzymes l lipases carbohydrates proteases and these to small intestine o Buffer Absorption is 80 Small lntestine All of things from pancreas mucus Digestion fats proteins carbs Absorption amino acids fatty acids cholesterol monosaccharides minerals vitamins Livergall bladder makes bile goes around food and pulls apart fats allows lipases to get in there and chew them out Large lntestine Chemical mucus 0 Physical villi microvilli o Digestion not much 0 Absorption water vitamins minerals l due to mutualistic bacteria that live here o Fiberrich food Will absorb more saccharides
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