GEOG Notes Week of 10/5
GEOG Notes Week of 10/5 GEOG 1003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Architecture of the Planet 0 Distinction between weather and climate 0 Climate conditions x number of years ago and what we can therefore expect 0 Weather temperature in terms of numbers 0 Architecture surface 0 Biosphere zone of life About 10 miles thin and very fragile Only about a quarter of earth s radius Think of it in terms of the skin of an apple the skin and biosphere have the same radius 0 Climate basics o What is changing when we think about climate change is actually very minimal parts per million Because of delicate balance between elements in atmosphere it makes a big difference when we talk about doubling certain ones 0 We are seeing rates of change that are equivalent to those of the Pleistocene Last ice age Due to human impact 0 Climate is the long term pattern of the weather Two factors Circulation of air and water Topography Earth s tilt is 235 degrees 0 This gives us the characteristic seasons that we have 0 Makes a difference of what direction the Earth is tilting in relation to the sun 0 Giant heat transfer system Rays heat up biosphere Earth is rotating around an axis generates heat there is then a surplus which is then sent through the planet and is what we feel The Tropics areas where you have full complete sun same degrees as tilt goes to the poles Distributes heat 0 Sometimes can be distributed in different forms such as hurricanes 0 Continental and maritime in uences precipitation distribution Fargo North Dakota center of North American continent Land heats up and cools down faster than water 0 Could be 100 degrees in summer and below 0 in winter because of this 0 Earth Drawing Cells 0 De ned by physical properties of water vapor Heat rises at equator goes to cells Hadley Ferrel Polar and loses some water content air masses move Area that has high pressure not much vegetation descending air and not much moisture a desert Doldrums winds at equator Trade winds are surface expressions of Hadley Cells 0 Trade comes from commerce between countries back in the day when people traveled by boat and relied on winds Westerlies winds 0 Movement of different air masses and how they collide At the poles there really isn t that much snow At the artic there is more snow than there used to be but this is due to warmer temperatures ITCZ intertropical convergence zone 0 Where wind masses meet 0 Equinox 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night happens 2x a year It undulates 0 They undulate around the equator following the sun In summer ITCZ is going north and bringing a lot of moisture brings lots of rainfall to places that don t get much this is how monsoons happen Topography o Temperatures get lower as you get higher in elevation 0 As air ascends up the side of a mountain range temp goes down and loses its ability to hold as much moisture l precipitation Climate Zones 0 Driven by many different factors 0 We are in the human subtropical climate zone KoppenGeiger Climate Classi cation System 0 A way of characterizing climates around the world based on two factors Temperature Precipitation 0 Hclimates behave differently due to high elevation behaves as though it is a higher latitude like Tibet and Ethiopia Water Cycle 0 Ice and snow gets stored ie quotsnow capsquot of mountains O O 0 Turns into runoff and discharge into ground water Begins to evaporate Biogeography O 0000 0 Role 0 Patterns of life in atmosphere l biogeography Study of distribution of life forms across space and through time Attitude elevation isolation habitat area Distribution of life forms Net Primary Productivity Aka primary production 0 Plants take in C02 from atmosphere use in photosynthesis and byproduct is 02D photosynthesis Produces atmosphere we need to survive NDBI measure of greenness Biome Areas with similar climatic conditions contiguous Referred to as ecosystems Some parts of the Earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a large area Climatic factors Latitude numbers that describe how far away you are from the equator Humidity 0 Elevation 0 Biodiversity ofSoHs Soil is considered the quotskin of the earthquot Interfaces between lithosphere hydrosphere atmosphere and biosphere Layer is thinner than skin of an apple End product of in uences of climate topography biotic activity parent materials Formation processes are driven by climate like temperature and precipitation and relief and presence of organisms o Latitudelongitude O O O O Spherical earth problem Geographic coordinate system LL evolution Longitude Act competition of determining a way to measure long ude John Harrison designed the prize which was a frictionless clock Grand Challenges 0 Human domination of ecosystems 0 Food Web Sun is a huge component Different levels that describe how everything eats something which is eaten by something else We are of the higher tropic levels because we aren t eaten by anything else 0 Slight review 0 Net primary Productivity 0 Appropriated energy energy from the sun Gives us short wave radiation that heats up everything 0 Plants metabolize energy to make food 0 Drivers of climate patterns of it allow us to hunt and sh and for agriculture Paleolithic people Plant domestication is one of our interventions o The Omnivore s Dilemma Michael Pollan We have so many options of what we can eat what should we eat 0 We have so any choices 0 Food and Human Evolution 0 Since we left Africa 70000 years ago human evolution has accelerated 0 Agriculture could be considered quotunnatural selectionquot due to mutations and how we manipulate species to mate We do genetic modi cation on our food sources 0 Boundary bw Paleolithic and Neolithic eras o No clear distinction 0 Both discovering grains still foraging hunting and shing 0 Diets tie them down they were not mobile 0 Domestication of plants and animals By doing this they domesticated themselves because of needsrequirements of food supply 0 What happened to Paleos People settled in villages before farming Mesolithic Middle stone age where people lived in estuaries and reaped wild grasses for tiny seeds 0 Neolithic attitudes towards nature We became very reliant on agriculture When you are a farmer you become more attuned to weather patterns Geometry measuring land Almanacs accounting systems winter solstice O Domestication the selective breeding of animals and plants for human use speci cally the highest yields production per unit area disease resistance behavior 0 Involves genetic change We have been doing this for thousands of years through selective breeding grafting o Humans chose animals and plants that were easiest to tame drought resistance 0 Three sisters agricultural forms of corn Agriculture de ned 0 ARTIFICIAL cultivation and processing of animals plants Key implement in rise of sedentary human civilization Let there be agriculture 0 Animal domestication Dogs were the earliest domesticated animals 0 Was man s best friend actually a fox Sheep and goats Horses Llamas Donkeys 0 Plant domestication Middle east old world crops 0 Rye Figs 0 Wheat 0 Barley Americas Squash 0 Maize Potatoes Peanuts Chiles Tomatoes China 0 Rice 0 Millet Africa Sorghum Pearl Miet New Guinea 0 Sugar Bananas o Yams 0 Sugar Domestication broke out in a lot of different places around the same time Domesticated in New Guinea 10000 years ago then it went to india and they turned the juice into crystals called khanda Then Venice in the 15th century became the re ning and distribution center for Europe Columbus received sugar cane cuttings to plant in the New World Sugar was always associated with slavery up until recently Sidney Mintz Sweetness and Power 0 100 million people left home to establish new lives in other continents 0 half of them were cutting cane and making sugar for the other half who were eating it o Impacts of Domestication Ecosystems become simpli ed Grow fewer types crops but more of each one More food available 0 Higher yields that were more accessible to urban areas lead ot improved nutrition and longer life spans 0 Can store surplus food and sell it Growth in population led to greater needs from environment Changes in settlement l rise of cities Deforestation and overgrazing quotAgriculturequot 0 Ager eld 0 Romans branded wheat in the form of bread Quintessential eld crop 0 Land had to be converted to agriculture Roman Agriculture Imported grains from subject countries in their empire to keep everyone fed Wheat is the staple Geometric system to lay out crop lands Latifundia large estates using slaves from other conquered lands Crop rotation O 0000 Using a sequence of different crops to keep soil from being depleted But heavy land use eventually led to soil depletion Microparasites and macroparasites 0 William McNeil Professor at U of Chicago De nes microparasites as things like viruses bacteria De nes macroparasites as criminals marauders unjust rulers dysfunctional institutions His theory is that bureaucracy arose as a replacement for the spoils taken by despots 0 Jared Diamond Guns Germs and Steel 0 Agriculture s environmental impacts 0 Nothing natural about agriculture 0 Most impactful land use we have ever come up with o quotHumans were a grain s way of getting rid of treesquot
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