Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes COMM 2331 - 0010
Popular in Strategic Communication Principles
Popular in Communication Studies
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 2331 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
CHAPTER 4 Perspectives on Consumer Behavior 0 Important for marketers to know how and why consumers needs develop what they are and who is likely to use the productservice 0 Understanding factors that lead to and impact purchase decisions 0 Consumer behaviorlehe process and activities people engage in when searching for selecting purchasing using evaluating and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needsdesires 0 Sometimes result of long detailed process that may include extensive information search brand comparisonsevaluations etc 0 Sometimes incidental and small cues lead to decision impulse purchases 0 Stages that buyer passes in purchasing productservice Involves number of internal psychological processesljmotivation perception attitude formation integration and learning 0 occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve problem 0 Caused by different bt consumer s ideal state and actual state 0 Discrepancy exists bt what consumer wants situation to b like and what situation is actually like 0 Problem Recodnition Sources 0 Out of Stockljused existing supply of product amp must replenish simpleroutine purchase decision resolved by choosing familiar brand that consumer feels loyal to o Dissatisfactionljnot satis ed wcurrent situation or productservice ad offers solution to this 0 New NeedsWants changes in consumers lives can lead to new needswants ex changes in nancial situation employment status lifestyle 0 Related ProductsPurchasesljex buying lpod and than wanting to purchase accessories for it such as a dock car attachment cord or case 0 MarketerInduced Problem Recognitionljmarketers encourage consumers not to be content w their current statesituation designed to create insecurities that O consumers can resolve through using products foot sprays creating perceptions that wardrobes are out of style ta king advantage of noveltyseeking behavior or consumers tendency to try new things New Productsljinnovative products introduced and brought to consumers attention 0 Examining Consumer Motivations O 0 Study of motives factors that compel a consumer to take a particular action Hierarchy of needsljtheory postulating ve basic levels of human needs arrange based on importance 1 Physioogicabasic primary needs needed to sustain life food shelter clothing sex 2 5afetyneed for securityprotection safety from physical harm 3 Social Needs sense of belonging love affection acceptance 4 Esteem need to feel accomplishmentrecognition status respect from others 5 Selfactuaization need for selfful llment desire to realize one s own potential Lower levels physiological must be satis ed before higher needs like self esteem Psychoanalytic TheorylSigmund Freud studying underlying motivations for human behavior motivations are complex and unclear to casual observer the subconscious Motivation researchljincludes indepth interviews projective techniques association tests and focus groups in which consumers encouraged to bring out associations related to productsbrands Psychoanalytic Theory ProblemsContributions 0 Pros reveals hidden feelings drives and fears highlights symbolic factors shifts attention from what to quothowquotquotwhyquot Cons qualitative results from very small samplesnot generalizable to population varyingsubjective interpretation difficultimpossible to verify or validate Some believe that as competition for advertisers dollars has increased the amountexplicitness of sexual content on TV has increased as well as many programscommercials now push limits as to what is acceptable o after problem recognition consumers begin to search for information needed to make purchase decision 0 Internal searchljinitial search effort in which consumer attempts to recall past experienceknowledge stored in memory 0 External searchljinternet sources personal sources friendscoworkers marketercontrolled commercial sources Ads salespeople pointofpurchase displays public sources magazines newspapers TV reports personal experience handling examining testing product Perceptionljprocess by which individual receives selects organizes and interprets information to create meaningful picture of world 0 Individual process depends on internal factors such as beliefs experiences needs moods expectations 0 Also in uenced by characteristics ofstimuus size color intensity and the context in which it is seenheard o Sensation immediate direct response of the senses taste smell sight touch hearing to stimulus such as ad package brand name 0 Marketers sometimes try to increase level of sensory input so advertising messages will get noticed scent strips 0 Selecting lnformationljconsumer s personality needs motives expectations experiences play a role in explaining why people focus attention on some things and ignore others 0 lndividual s perceptual processes focus on environmental elements speci crelevant to their needs Interpreting lnformationljperceptual process focuses on organizing categorizing and interpreting incoming information o lndividualistic process in uenced by internal psychological factors 0 Ex some ads are very objective in meaning but some are more ambiguous and their meaning is strongly in uenced by consumers individual interpretation 0 Selectivity Cognitive Dissonance 0 When we have con icting beliefs or con ict bt belief and behavior 0 Distressing feeling that we want to avoid so we seek opinions that are consistent with our existing beliefs and avoid opinions that are not Selective Perception occurs as consumers choose whether or not to make themselves available to information ex leaving room during commercial break or changing channel O O O Selective attentionljconsumer chooses to focus attention on certain stimuli while excluding others Selective comprehensionljinterpreting information on basis of their own attitudes beliefs motives experiences Selective retentionljconsumers do not remember all the information they see hear or read advertisers use mnemonics such as symbols rhymes associations images to combat this 0 Subliminal Perceptionljability to perceive stimulus that is below level of conscious awareness controversial tactic that advertisers use 0 0 Ex subliminal audio messagesvisual cues Strong ethical implications consumer compares various bra ndsproductsservices O Evoked set Various brands identi ed as purchase options to be considered subset of all brands of which consumer is aware Marketers use advertising to create topofmind awareness among consumers so their brands are part of evoked set Popular brands with large advertising budgets use reminder advertisements to maintain high awareness levels Evaluative criterialjdimensionsattributes of a productservice that are used to compare different alternatives can be objective or subjective Ex buying car includes objective attributes price warranty fuel economy and subjective factors image styling performance Consumers tend to think about productservice in terms of consequencesoutcomes Functional consequencesljconcrete outcomes of productservice usage that are tangible and directly experienced by consumers Psychosocial consequencesljabstract outcomes that are more intangible subjective and personal such as how product makes you feel or how you think others will view you for purchasingusing it Attitudeljlearned predispositions to respond to an object represents individual s overall feelings toward or evaluation of product 0 Important to marketers bc they theoretically summarize a consumer s evaluation of an object and represent positivenegative feelings amp behavioral tendencies o MultiAttribute Modelljviews an attitude object productbrand as possessing a number of attributes that provide the basis on which consumers form their attitudes AB X E i1 where AB attitude toward a brand B beliefs about the brand s perfbrmance on attribute i E importance attached to attribute i n number of attributea considered 0 MemoryBased MultiAttribute Attitude Model 0 Attitude toward an object brand is function of A the accessibilitysaliency of available beliefs or considerations in one s memory and B how much weightapplicability each accessible beliefconsideration is given 0 When prompted to make an evaluation individuals recall all accessible positivenegative considerations in memory X the weight each is given 0 Salient beliefsljbeliefs concerning speci c attributesconsequences that are activated and form the basis of an attitude 0 Markets need to identifyunderstand salient beliefs 0 Attitude Change Stratew 0 Increasing or changing the strength or belief rating of a brand on an important attribute Colgate toothpaste has best whitening power 0 Changing relative importance of particular attribute increasing importance attribute has to solve problem 0 Adding new attribute to attitude formation process product is environmentally friendly 0 Marketers compare brands to competitors on speci c product attributes 0 Integration Processesljway product knowledge meanings beliefs are combined to evaluate two or more alternatives 0 Different types of decision rules or strategies consumers use to decide among purchase alternatives 0 Sometimes consumers use heuristics simpi ed decision rules ex buying least expensive brand or choosing brand with couponspecial deal 0 Affectreferral decision ruleljconsumers make selection on basis of overall impressionsummary evaluation of various alternatives under consideration 0 Markets try to utilize affectreferral decision rule by creating strong brand images quotNationwide is on your sidequot or Allstate quotYou re in Good Handsquot 0 O 0 Consumers form purchase intentionljpredisposition to buy certain brand by matching purchase motivation with brand attributesattitudes Often a delay bt purchase decision and actual purchase particularly for highly involvedcomplex purchases cars computers etc Brand loyaltyljpreference for particular brand based on repeated purchase Marketers strive to maintain brand loyalty through reminder advertising prominent shelf positions and periodic promotions loyaltyreward promotions Consumer compares level of performance w expectations and is either satis ed or dissatis ed Important bc in uences likelihood of future purchases Cognitive Dissonanceljfeeling of psychological tension or post purchase doubt that a consumer experiences after making a difficult purchase choice more likely to occur in important decision where consumer has to choose among close alternatives PromotionAdvertisingsets reasonablemanageable expectations provides reassurance capitalizes on dissatisfaction by providing alternatives Consumer Learningljprocess by which consumers acquire consumptionrelated knowledge and experience that they apply to future behavior 2 basic approaches behavioral amp cognitive Behavioral Learning Theory emphasizes role of external environmental stimuli in causing behavior minimizes signi cance of internal psychological processes 0 0 Based on stimulusresponse orientation learning is result of responses to external stimuli through environment Classical conditioning learning is an associative process with a preexisting relationship bt stimulus amp response Pavlov amp salivating dogs Buyers can be conditioned to form favorable impressionsimages of various brands through associative process Associating productservice with a favorable emotional state background music images humor Individual is passive participant who simply receives stimuli and is conditioned as result of exposure to stimulus o Operant conditioningindividual must actively operate or act on some aspect of environment for learning to occur Sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning bc individual s response is instrumental in getting positive reinforcement reward or negative reinforcement punishment Behavior that is reinforced strengthens bond bt stimulus amp response Behavior consumer uses productservicepositive or negative consequences occur from use of product leading to reward or punishmentincrease or decrease in probability of repeat behavior purchase Learning occurs most rapidly under continuous reinforcement scheduleevery response is rewarded but behavior is likely to cease when reinforcement stops Learning occurs more slowly but lasts longer under partial or intermittent reinforcementonly some of individual s responses are rewarded Shapingljreinforcement of successive acts that lead to desired behavior pattern 0 Cognitive Learning Theory focus on the complex mental processes that underlie consumer decisionmaking o Processes such as perception formation of beliefs about brands attitude development and change and integration Reference Social Class Cultureljcomplexity of learned meanings values norms and customs shared by members of a society 0 American culture continually goes through many changes that have direct implications for advertising marketers must monitor changes Subcultures smaller groupssegments whose beliefsnorms set them apart from larger cultural mainstream 0 May be based on age geographic religious racial or ethnic differences 0 Important to marketers bc of their size growth purchasing power and distinct purchasing patterns Social Classljrelatively homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar lifestyles values norms interests and behaviors can be grouped 0 Usually based on occupational status educational attainment and income Reference Groupslj group whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for hisher judgments opinions and actionsquot 0 3 typesassociative aspirational dissociative Situational Determinantsljthe speci c usage situation purchase situation and communications situation SUMMARY Consumer behaviorprocessactivities people engage in when searching for selecting purchasing using evaluating and disposing of productsservices to satisfy their needsdesires Consumer decisionmaking processljproblem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase and postpurchase evaluation 0 Internal psychological processes include motivation perception attitude formation amp change and integration processes Decision process model views consumer behavior primarily from cognitive orientation New techniques such as neuroscience are used to determine what you buy and why you buy it Relevant external factors ljculture subculture social class reference groups situational determinants
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