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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrea Dominguez on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 205 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
CHAPTER 6 Learning any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience 0 Learning is one of the most fundamental concepts in all of psychology 0 Learning shapes Personal habits Personality traits Personal preferences Emotional responses 0 If somehow all of our learned responses were stripped away little of our behavior would be left Conditioning a speci c kind of learning involves learning connections between evens that occur in an organism39s environment learning by observation Phobias are irrational fears of speci c objects or situations Many Irrational fears can be traced back to experiences that involve classical conditioning Classical Conditioning a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by anotherdifferent stimulus 0 Discovered in 1900 by Ivan Pavlov Pavlovian conditioning Russian physiologist Nobel prizewinning research on digestion Studied the role of saliva in the digestive process of dogs quotpsychic re exesquot Classical conditioning apparatus Research with dogs Terminology Dog salivating when a tone was presented Tone of the food machine started as a neutral stimulus did not originally produce the response ofsaHvann Pavlov managed to change that by pairing the tone with a stimulus meat powder that did produce salivation response Through this process the tone acquired the capacity to trigger the response of salivation The tone became a learned association because the food always followed the tone 0 Unconditioned association Unconditioned Stimulus US evokes a response with no previous conditioning ex food a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response UR is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Ex salivating to food 0 Conditioned Association Conditioned Stimulus CS a previously neutral stimulus that has through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Ex tone Conditioned Response CR is a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning ex salivating to the tone Basic Processes in Classical Conditioning 0 0 0 Acquisition initial stage in learning something Extinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Continually presenting the CS without the UCS Results in the gradual disappearance of the CR Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus The dependent variable in a Classical Conditioning experiment The strength of the conditioned response Stimulus Generalization and Little Albert 0 0000 Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a speci c stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Why Generalization is adaptive given that organisms rarely encounter the exact same stimulus more than one Unconditioned Stimulus loud noise Unconditioned Response fear of the loud noise Conditioned Stimulus white rat Unconditioned Response fear of the white rat because of it s association with the loud noise Little Albert was presented a loud frightening noise in the presence of a white rat then became scared of white rabbits white fur coat and anything else that appeared white and uffy Operant Conditioning is a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences 0 0 0 Organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by favorable consequences BF Skinner conducted some deceptively simple research that became very in uential Went to become the most famous American psychologist in the world Demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat those responses that are followed by a favorable consequence Reinforcement occurs when an event following a response increases an organism39s tendency to make that response a response is strengthened because it leads to rewarding consequences Consequences Reinforcement and Punishment Positive Reinforcement Occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus Negative Reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimuli an organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring Decreasing a response Punishment occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response 0 Problems with punishment is this ethical 0 Skinner Box Operant Chamber Operant chamber a small enclosure in which an animal can make a speci c response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled Rats pressing a small lever Pigeons pecking a small disk Reinforcement contingencies the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers Typically a positive consequence when an animal makes the designated response ex food Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning 0 0 Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process of shaping Shaping consists of repeatedly reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired response until the desired response in achieved Shaping is necessary when an organism does not on its own emit the desired response In operant conditioning extinction refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcers Extinction begins in operant conditioning whenever previously available reinforcement is stopped Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after the delivery of a reinforcer has been terminated Resistance to extinction depends on the schedule of reinforcement used during acquisition Discriminative stimuli cues that in uence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences reinforcement or nonreinforcement of a response Ex a colored light in a skinner box 0 Stimulus generalization responding to anew stimulus as if it were the original Schedule of Reinforcement determines which occurrences of a speci c response result in the presentation of a reinforcer 0 Continuous reinforcement occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced o Intermittent partial reinforcement occurs when a designate response is reinforced only some of the time More resistant to extinction because it s less predictable 4 types 0 Ratio schedules 0 Fixed ratio the reinforcer is given after a xed number of nonreinforced responses 0 Variable ratio the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses Interval schedules 0 Fixed interval the reinforcer is given for the rst response that occurs after a xed time interval has elapsed Long pause after reinforcement yields quotscallopingquot effect 0 Variable interval the reinforcer given for the rst response after a variable time interval has elapsed This has higher rates overall 1 After Repeatedly pairing a tone with meat powder Pavlov found that a dog will salivate when the tone is presented Salivation to the tone is an A Unconditioned stimulus B Unconditioned response C Conditioned stimulus D Conditioned response I Watson and Rayner 1920 conditioned quotLittle Albertquot to fear white rats by banging a hammer on a steel bar as the child played with a white rat Later it was discovered that Albert feared not only white rates but white stuffed toys and Santa39s beard as well Albert39s fear of these other objects can be attributed to A negative reinforcement B Stimulus generalization C Stimulus discrimination D an overactive imagination 3 A primary reinforcer has reinforcing properties a secondary reinforcer has reinforcing properties A biological acquired B conditioned unconditioned C weak potent D immediate delayed I The Steady rapid responding of a person playing a slot machine is an example of the pattern of responding typically generated on a schedule A xedratio B variableratio C xedinterval D variableinterval 5 Positive reinforcement the rate of responding negative reinforcement the rate of responding A increases decreases B decreases increases C increases increases D decreases decreases 6 Research on avoidance learning suggests that a fear response is acquired through conditioning the avoidance response is maintained as a result of conditioning A classical operant B operant classical C classical classical D operant operant