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This 31 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Szerlip on Thursday November 6, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to psych422 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Dawood in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/06/14
Sex Hormones amp Menstrual Cycle Human Sexuality Sex steroids Hormones are signaling molecules secreted WED the bOOd bv endocrine glands Many hormones are active in sexual and reproductive physiology Sex steroids Lipid molecules derived from cholesterol Fall into 3 major subgroups Androgens 9 Testosterone S otdihydrotestosteroneDHT Estrogens 9 Estradiol Progestins 9 Progesterone Synthesis of the main sex steroids progesterone synthesized cholesterol from cholesterol p 4 enzymatic steps Progesterone 3 enzymatic steps Testosterone Aromatase 3 I p 5oc reductase 50Ldihydrotestosterone DIIT Estradiol17B s pL 3e y 5 1 2009 Sinauer Associates Inc Testosterone Sex hormone in both men and women Secreted by Gonads testes Leydigcells ovaries thecal cells Adrenal gland Testosterone levels va ry cyclically In men 2 Cycles testosterone key hormone Short cycle 24 hours i me arid W0m9 Circadian cycle peaks in morning In women Peaks at ovulation in menstrual cycle Testosterone ng ml HUMAN Testosterone cycles in a man I Midnight Time 6 PM 6 AM Noon SEXUALITY 3e Figure 52 09 Sinauer Associates Inc Estradiol estrogen Synthesized from testosterone in both sexes In women granulosa cells in the ovaries are main site for production and secretion of estradiol Work with thecal cells in ovaries which secrete testosterone Concentration varies with menstrual cycle Cells in brain also possess Production of estrogen ovaries 2 s eoial oes theoal and granulosa Thecal cell T vary P Thecal cells G 1 afj E A Ce1E1u osa Q Granulosa Q cell a Developing ovarian follicle Secreted p TV 39 53 2009 Slnauer Associates Inc Progesterone Primarilya female hormone Present in blood at high levels during Iuteal phase of menstrual cycle at even higher levels during pregnancy In men serves primarily as intermediary metabolite in synthesis of androgens Proteins and Peptides Another class of hormones that regulates sexual functions Peptide hormones Oxytocin Synthesized in the hypothalamus Transported down the axons of neurons to posterior lobe of pituitary gland Present in blood at low levels most of the time Reaches high levels at 3 times breastfeeding childbirth orgasm pair bonding feelings of attachment GonadotropinReleasing Hormone G n RH release of gonadotropins Peptide with important sexual function Produced in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior lobe of pituitary Stimulates release of 2 hormones Foice stimulating hormone FSH Luteinizing hormone LH Protein hormones released from anterior pituitary Prolactin Prepares breasts for lactation Strengthens effects of other hormones Growth hormone Stimulates growth throughout body Plays important role at puberty Protein hormones secreted by other tissues Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG Synthesized by the conceptus and by placenta mhibin fertilized egg Secreted by gonads testes and ovaries Acts on pituitary gland AntiMullerian hormone Secreted by the testis during fetal life Plays important role in blocking development of female reproductive tract in males AMh needed for male fetus to develop normally Principal sex hormones and their actions TABLE 51 The Principal Sex Hormones and Their Actions Part 1 Classsubclass of hormone Name Where produced Main targets Main hormonal actions Sex steroids Testosterone Gonads Widespread in Masculinizes body and brain adrenal cortex body and brain during fetal development and at puberty anabolic Androgerls effects maintains libido feedback inhibition of gonadotropins 5ocdihydro External genitalia External genitalia Development and mainten testosterone DHT prostate gland prostate gland skin ance of male external skin converted genitalia and prostate gland from testosterone adult male patterns of hair distribution Estrogens Estradiol173 Gonads Widespread in body Feminizes body at puberty and brain contributes to menstrual cycle increases density of bone ends growth of limb bones at puberty feedback inhibition of gonadotropins maintains libido Progestins Progesterone Ovary corpus Uterus Contributes to menstrual luteum placenta cycle maintains pregnancy HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Table 51 Part 1 2009 SinauerAssociatesnc Principal sex hormones and their actions TABLE 5 The Principal Sex Hormones and Their Actions Part 2 Classsubclass of hormone Name Where produced Main targets Main hormonal actions Proteinspeptides Releasing Gonadotropinreleasing Hypothalamus Anterior lobe of Causes release of gonadotropins hormones hormone GnRH pituitary gland Folliclestimulating Anterior lobe of Gonads Stimulates spermatogenesis hormone FSH pituitary gland stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles Gonadotropins Luteinizing hormone Anterior lobe of Gonads Stimulates secretion of gonadal LH pituitary gland steroids stimulates ovulation Human chorionic Conceptus Ovary Maintains corpus luteum gonadotropin hCG Prolactin Anterior lobe of Breast Prepares breast for lactation pituitary gland Growth hormone Anterior lobe of Widespread in body Stimulates growth spurt at pituitary gland puberty lnhibin Gonads Anterior lobe of Feedback inhibition of Other pituitary gonadotropin secretion Oxytocin Hypothalamus Breast uterus Milk letdown uterine AntiMiillerian hormone AMH transported to posterior pituitary for secretion Testis Mullerian duct contractions during labor role in orgasm other nonreproductive functions Causes regression of Mullerian duct during male fetal development HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Table 51 Part 2 2009 Sinauer Associates Inc BrainPituitaryTestis loop Hypothalamus secretes GnRH GnRH stimulates secretion of LH stimulates secretion of androgens by Leydig cells of testes FSH stimulates Sertoli to increase production of sperm cells Negative feedback by testosterone on LH and GnRH and by inhibin on FSH Hormonal interactions in men Hypothalamus 1 Anterior y K pituitary i V J Inhibin Testis Androgens Target organs HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Figure 56 o aaaaaaaa Associ c Menstruation Biological Social and Psychological Aspects First menstrual period transition to womanhood celebrated in many cultures Negative views are also widespread Contemporary Western cultures women have divergent views The 3 phases of the menstrual cycle Menstrual days 15 breakdown of endometrium with loss of tissue and blood from the vagina Follicular days 614 maturation of follicles in the ovaries Luteal days1528 presence of a corpus luteum hormonesecreting structure formed from the single follicle that ruptured at ovulation A 28day menstrual cycle ovulation happens at the border of 39imP a t t0 be r99 39ar the follicular and luteal phase amount of days isnt impor I is almost always eeks in length Luteal phase postovulatory phase in the ovaries Follicular phase secretory phase preovulatory phase in the uterus in the ovaries Ovulation HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Figure 510 2 ovulation 2 weeks before menstrual phase W Phase 1 Menstrual Endometrium inner lining of uterus breaks down Triggered by drop in progesterone levels secreted by corpus Iuteum Estrogen also drops Negative feedback loop between estrogen and secretions of LH and FSH by pituitary gland Phase 2 Follicular Primary oocyte is surrounded by layer of granulosa cells primordial follicle Expands and adds layer of thecal cells preantral follicle Fluidfilled cavity antrum forms within follicle expands to quot 2mm and begins to produce gonadotropin receptors thecal cells for LH granulosa cells for FSH and enlarge Only follicles with receptors survive others die One follicle becomes dominant preovulatory follicle Phase 2 Follicular Preovulatory foice s granulosa cells produce LH receptors High estrogen levels trigger estradio s negative feedback on LH secretion to become ve feedback LH levels increase 3936 hours before ovulation Preovulatory follicle begins to secrete progesterone enlarges ruptures and releases secondary oocyte ovum Cervical mucus increases stretches easily Phase 3 Luteal After ovulation dominant follicle transforms into corpus Iuteum Granulosa cells granulosaIutein cells secrete progesterone and inhibin Thecal cells thecalIutein cells estrogen via synthesis of testosterone Endometrium thickens cervical mucus thickens hard for sperm to penetrate Finally corpus Iuteum degenerates and progesteroneestrogen levels drop ain processes of the menstrual cycle Ovulation Corpus Endometrlum 5 P P P an t s I Day 0 5 14 28 J J Y Y Phase Menstrual Fo111cu1ar Luteal 2009 Slnauer Associates Inc HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Figure 511 Part 2 Hormonal loops A Follicular phase B Luteal phase tlamus Anterior pltultary Estradiol Inhibin Progesterone blue at sustained high levels 91quot Target organs Endometrium Target organs H TY 39 0 51 3 2009 Slnauer Associates Inc The menstrual cycle influences sexuality Women39s sexuality is NOT strictly regulated by hormonal fluctuations of menstrual cycle This distinguishes humans from most other animals Women are more interested in sex and more sexually active during the 5 ferme days than any other days of the cycle Increased interest in sex at and before ovulation is facilitated by high levels of estrogens and androgens Evidence for the role of androgen in female sexual desire 5 Estrogen androgen 4 93 E 3 3 U 5 gtlt 3 2 2 Estrogen gt G I4 1 Control 0 I I I I I 0 f 1 2 3 4 Injection Week HUMAN SEXUALITY 3e Figure 516 Dysmenorrhea Many women experience symptoms associated with their menstrual cycle Painful cramps pain in pelvis or lower back nauseaheadaches Dysmenorrhea P rimary Disabling pain not associated with any diagnosable pelvic condition Secondary Menstrual pain caused by a pelvic condition Premenstrual syndrome PMS Physical discomfort andor negative mood change 714 days before period Breast swelling and tenderness bloating diarrhea or constipation headache anxiety or irritability depression or crying spells difficulty in concentrating If problems go away after onset of period but recur regularly PMS If psychological symptoms are severe enough to interfere with relationships PMDD Amenorrhea Many reasons why menstrual periods can stop eg pregnancy breastfeeding menopause stress extreme loss of weight Primary amenorrhea failure to begin menstruating at puberty Menorrhagia excessivey heavy bleeding
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