Weekly Notes-Oct 5-9
Weekly Notes-Oct 5-9 BIO 121-A
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tori Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 121-A at Missouri State University taught by Ryan Udan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
CHAPTER 4 PART 2 Structures of the Cell The Endomembrane System network of membranes around the nuclear envelope endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus lysosomes and vacuoles and also includes the plasma membrane membranes are either directly connected or fusion of vesicles The Nucleus contains the DNA of a cell has a double membrane has pores that lets small molecules go in and out of the cell aso has a nucleolus darker area Nuceoussite of ribosome formation Nucear Envelope outer membrane is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane nucear pores provide passages for the molecules to enter and exit Ribosome a large complex of RNA molecules and protein copy mRNA messages to a protein some ribosomes are made for the plasma membrane some ribosomes oat free in the cytosol Endopasmic Reticulum ER 2 parts double membrane which is hollow ER lumen inside of the double membrane smooth ER detoxi cation storage and release of glucose and Calcium and synthesis of lipids Rough ER studded with ribosomes and site protein synthesis Golgi Apparatus post of ce of the cell transports the proteins where they need to go Lysosomes stomach of the cell cell membrane bound compartments that breakdown the macro molecules in the cell contain enzymes called acid hydrolases only function at low pH Phagocytosis digestion of things by pinching off part of the membrane into a vesicle Autophagy the digestion of old organelles proteins or molecules Vacuoles bubbles in a cell membrane bound organelles centra vacuolesin plants for storage and support contractie vacuolesin protists for getting rid of excess water keeps it from rupturing phagocytic vacuoles protists and white blood cells for degradation Peroxisomes liver of the cell breakdown fatty acids and detoxify alcohol and other harmful compounds breakdown of fatty acids results in hydrogen peroxide hydrogen peroxide are highly reactive to macromolecules contain catalases which breakdown the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen Mitochondria and chloroplasts semiautomomous have DNA storage but they depend on internal components Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell produce ATP contains its own DNA divides to make more mitochondria has a double membrane system made up of intermembrane space and matrix space Choroplastsfood producers of the cell contain their own DNA can divide to form more chloroplasts Comprised of an outer and inner membrane an lntermembrane space and a thylakoid membrane CHAPTER 103 Tissues Cels smallest unit of life there are many different types of cells in a multicellular organism Tissues made up of cells that are similar in function or structure organs made up of two or more types of tissue that perform speci c functions 6 basic cell processes all cells cell division cell growth and cell migration happens in most multicellular organisms apoptosis only in multicellular organisms differentiation and cell adhesion 4 types of animal tissue Epitheia tissuecells that come together to form sheets that cover or line the body or organ skin Connective tissuesupport and connect tissues tendons and ligaments Nervous tissue communicates with other nervous tissues neurons muscuar tissue generates force that makes movement musces 3 types of Plant tissues derma tissuecovering of plants skin of plants ground tissuecells between dermal and vascular tissue vascuar tissueform interconnected conducting vessels for water and nutrients Study Questions 01 Which of these is not part of the endomembrane system Rough ER and Nucleolus AnswerNucleous 02 One role of the rough ER is to Answer synthesize proteins Q3 This organelle contains acid hydrolases to break down macromolecules into smaller subunts Answer lysosomes Q4 What cell behavior are unique to multicellular organisms only Answer cell differentiation and adhesion 05 This tissue uses electrical signals to communicate with other cells Answer Nervous Ussue Q6 Cells involved in the secretion of enzymes for the digestive systems are most often associated with which type of tissue Answer Epithelial Ussue Q7 What kind of tissue can be used for the transportation of sugar throughout the plant Answer Vascular Ussue