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Week 2 Notes

by: Layla Courtney

Week 2 Notes Life 102

Layla Courtney
Attributes of Living Systems
Stephen Stack

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Lecture notes for week 2
Attributes of Living Systems
Stephen Stack
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layla Courtney on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Stephen Stack in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Week 2 Notes 92 Cationpositively charged ion Anionnegatively charged ion Ionic bondan electrically charged bond between two atoms Aqueousdissolved in water Compounds formed by ionic bonds are not molecules but rather ionic compounds or salts found in nature as crystals Hydrogen bonds 0 Mostly involved in water 0 Charged parts of a molecule are attracted to other relatively charged molecules This attraction holds them together 0 120 as strong as a covalent bond Van der Waals interactions 0 Weaker than hydrogen bonds 0 Very large surface area comes into contact w another surface area and produce an attraction Importance of hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions 0 Let molecules stick together Chemical reactions 0 In chemical reactions bonds are broken rst then reformed o All chemical reactions are reversible 0 Chemical equilibriumwhen the amount of reactions going one way is equal to the amount of reactions going the other way Water amp Life chapter 3 Water covers 34 of the earth Life began in water Cells are 1095 water Cells are surrounded by water aqueous solution Only common substance found in all 3 states of matter that commonly occur on earth39s surface Properties of water 00000 O Polarity Attracted to itself cohesion Attracted to other polar molecules adhesion Liquid stategt hydrogen bonds are being formed and broken all the timeup to 4 hydrogen bonds at a time Water has higher heat of vaporization because the hydrogen bonds are always breaking and reforming Ocean obsorbs heat coming to places near the coast and it releases heat when the area is cold Moderates temperature Insulation When water freezes the hydrogen bonds are stable and expand by about 10 molecules are further apart less dense than liquid water This makes ice oatwhen ice forms it rises to the top and insulates the water underneath which is why life can live in water even in the cold Practically universal solvent Hydration shellwater surrounds the ions on the surface and pull it awaycreates a solution Colloidprotein solution that is near the transition from liquid to gel Cells are colloids Hydrophilicwater loving Hydrophobicwater fearing Hydrophilic ions and polar molecules Hydrophobic nonpolar and not ionic Determining solute concentrations in aqueous solutions 0 Have to know atomic weight of atoms involved 0 Know molecular weightcombined atomic weights of atoms in the molecule Avogadro39s number 6022x1023 o 1 mole o 1 gram of atom Molarity o 1 molar solution is the expression of the exact concentration in a liquid medium Equation to remember 0 Volume of solution in L x Molarity molL moles Acids Bases and pH 0 H20 ltgt HOH39 o ltgt ionization o pH ogH Acids o Decrease pH below 70 0 pH down hydrogen ion up 0 Proton donators 0 Strong acids Can completely ionize in water 0 Weak acids Weak proton donor 0 H x OH 1x1039 L4 Bases 0 Pick up protonsproton acceptors 0 Strong bases 39 Completely ion ize 0 Weak bases 39 Don39t change pH much Buffers 0 Chemicals that keep DH from changing too much 39 Ad a39rC39Ii39dgt preteen 39 batslew release p mton


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