Week 3 Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layla Courtney on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Stephen Stack in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
914 3 types of lipids Fats Phospholipids o Carboxyl o Amphipathic reacts with hydroxyl in a molecules dehydration reaction in o Both the synthesis of fat hydrophobic and creating an Esther hydrophilic linkage 0 Permit biological 0 Fatty acid tails membranes have no charge they Phospholipid are hydrophobic Saturated fat all available bonds for carbon have hydrogen 0 Form a solid 0 Tend to cause hardening of the arteries atherosclerosis Unsaturated fat 1 or more carbon double bonds 0 Ciskink in tail don t solidify welldoube bondbending o Transst raight chain margarine more risk for heart disease than saturated 0 Ma n made bilayers form spheres Proteins o 20 different amino acids 4 groups Nonpolar Polar Acidic Steroidssterols Have a basic 4 ring structure Common in membranes Side groups give different identities Ex Cholesterol 0 We genera it o Excesshe rt disease Basic Polypeptides chain of amino acids Made by polymerizationloses water Amino endNterminus Carboxyl end Cterminus Primary structure 0 OOO Polypeptidesequence of amino acids Most important 0 Secondary structure Internal hydrogen bonding Alpha helix and beta pleated sheets 0 Tertiary structure Folding of a polypeptide chain 3D protein Globular 916 Proteins o Tertiary structure Folding of secondary structures into 3D structure Foldign caused by interactions between the sidechains Disul de bridges lonic bonds Hydrophobic van der waals Hydrogen bonds Globular protein 0 Fibrous proteins No tertiary structure Involved in structure and strength Keratin and collagen o Quaternary structure 2 or more proteins coming together Fibrousno tertiary but yes quaternary o Denaturation and renaturation Denaturation is when proteins lose native structure due to extreme environments such as heat or pH Shape of proteins is determined as it is made thus it is extremely unlikely for denaturation to be reversible 0 Functions of proteins Enzyme 0 Speed up chemical reactions Defensive proteins o Protections against disease 0 Example antibodies Structural 0 support 0 Structural component inside and outside of the cell Storage 0 Storage of amino acids 0 Storage product for breakdown Contractile and o Aid in movement myelin amp actin motor 0 Move materials around in the cell Transport 0 Transport substances hemoglobin bilayer Hormonal 0 Coordination of multicellular Receptor proteins organism39s activity Response of cell to chemical stimuli Nucleic acids 0 Polymerspolynucleotides o Deoxyribose nucleotide DNA Carries genetic plan passes from mother to daughter cell passed from parents to offspring Genes inherited Primary protein structure is determined by DNA Sugar is missing the second carbon 0 Nitrogenous bases Purines 6 ring Adenine A amine group only Guanine G amine group and oxygen These occur in DNA and RNA Pyrimidines Cytosine C RNA and DNAamino and Oxygen Thymine T DNA only 2 oxygen and methyl group subs for U in DNA Uracil U RNA only subs for T in RNA Nucleotides oating around are used to make more 539 end things are not being added 339 endthings are being added Sugarphosphate backbone DNA order determines amino acid order DNA Double helix Base pairs joined by hydrogen bonds Chains are complementary AT 2 hydrogen bonds GC 3 hydrogen bonds Strands are antiparallel 91 8 Watson and Crick determined the structure of DNA was a double helix Structure of the old strand determines the structure of the new strand 0 End up with identical strands 0 Done by DNA polymerase RNA 0 O 0 Also uses DNA as a template RNA polymerase Build RNA sequence using DNA strand Antisense strand of DNA RNA uses uracil instead of thymine DNA strand not used as templatesense strand Same sequence as RNA except T v U CUT OFF FOR EXAM 1 on 921 00 Cells 0 Fundamental units of life 0 Too small to be seen by naked eye 0 1100 micrometers 0 Surface area increases while total volume remains constant Reducing size of cells allows increase of SAV ratio Prokaryotes 0 Before a nucleus 0 Bacteria and archaea o 15 micrometers in diameter 0 Structures Flagella whip around like motor creating movement Smaller than eukaryotic ones Not in all bacteria 0 Fimbriae Little hair like structures that allow them to stick 0 Capsule Gel layer on outside surface that faces the environment 0 Cell wall Tough and composed of peptidoglycankeep from importing water Hypotonic mediumproblem for bacteria Plasma membrane Lipid bilayer Beginning of protoplasm living material Procytoplasm Ribosomes Enzymes Homogenous O No membrane Nucleoidpronucleus Contains the bacterial chromosome quot rcle 1 DNA Super packed Eu llta ryote s 39 True nucleus 5100 micrometers in diameter larger in terms of volume Pla a n a l s fu ngi p roti sts Lots of memranes Membranes for a sack Structures de ned by membranes oran el les Nucleus Has a membrane Largest organelle usually Filled with nucleoplasm Ta ken up by chromosomes made of chromatin combination of DNA and basic prtei39n a Need the combination 1 and basic proteins to cancel charges and DNA can collapse and be packed Chromosomes occupy territories 2 membranesnuclea r envelope Has pores Pores have proteins that control what gets in and out 39 Protein and nucleotides come in mRNA and ribosomes go out Nuclear envelope is part of the endoplasmic retic u l u m 067000606 99 Carbon and Molecular diversity of life Chapter 4 Organic moleculescarbon based molecules Carbon valence of 4can pick up or drop 4 electrons Carbon is a fundamental atom in living systems Can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon compounds have shape Double bound carbon at molecule planar Carbon molecules can vary in length no limit to of carbon atoms in a chain Carbon chains can vary in shape 0 Same chemical formula different shape Carbon chains can form rings Hydrocarbon molecules consist of Hydrogen and Carbon only 0 ln membranes living systems 0 Petroleum nonliving systems 0 Sidechains Groups of atoms attached to organic molecules Often change the function of molecules and are called functional groups Side groups Rrest of molecule Name Structure Acidbase Charge Name of molecul Hydroxyl ROH Neutral Partial Alcohols positive Carbonyl RO Neutral Partial End of chain negative aldehyde Middleketones Carboxyl RCOOH Acid weak Negative Carboxylic acids Amino RNH3 Base Positive Amine Sulfhydryl RSH Neutral Partial Thiol positive Phosphate RPO4 Acidweak Negative Organic phospha39 Methyl RCH3 Neutral No charge Methyl name of molecule All of the side groups are functional groups 0 lsomers Molecules w the same molecular formula but different structure Structural lsomers Differ in shape Cistrans geometric isomers Double bond between carbons Cisisomer X39s atoms on same side Transisomer X39s on opposite sides Enantiomersoptical isomerschiral isomers Need a symmetric carbon atom Bonded to four different things 911 Structure and function of large biomoecuar molecules 0 Carbohydrates Sugars and polymers of sugars Aldose sugarsalways the lst carbon where aldehyde group is Keto sugar starts closest to keto group Variations of sugar Length Location of carbonyl Endaldehyde Not endketo Location of hydroxyl group on asymmetric carbon Alpha glucosehydroxyl pointed down Beta glucosehydroxyl pointed up Abbreviate ring structureassume there is a carbon at each cornerangle Dehydration between 2 sugar molecules Creates glyosidic linkages forms a disaccharide Polysaccharides Made same way as disaccharides o Lipids Hydrophobic molecules 3 types Fats glycerol and fatty acids Phospholipids Steroids sterols 0 Proteins Polymers of amino acids 0 Nucleic acids Polymers of nucleotides Macromolecules 0 Polymers built of monomers Large molecules built up from subunits o Polymerization growthlengthening by dehydration Depolymerization shortening by hydrolysis These reactions are mediated by enzymes Week 2 Notes 92 Cationpositively charged ion Anionnegatively charged ion Ionic bondan electrically charged bond between two atoms Aqueousdissolved in water Compounds formed by ionic bonds are not molecules but rather ionic compounds or salts found in nature as crystals Hydrogen bonds 0 Mostly involved in water 0 Charged parts of a molecule are attracted to other relatively charged molecules This attraction holds them together 0 120 as strong as a covalent bond Van der Waals interactions 0 Weaker than hydrogen bonds 0 Very large surface area comes into contact w another surface area and produce an attraction Importance of hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions 0 Let molecules stick together Chemical reactions 0 In chemical reactions bonds are broken rst then reformed o All chemical reactions are reversible 0 Chemical equilibriumwhen the amount of reactions going one way is equal to the amount of reactions going the other way Water amp Life chapter 3 Water covers 34 of the earth Life began in water Cells are 1095 water Cells are surrounded by water aqueous solution Only common substance found in all 3 states of matter that commonly occur on earth39s surface Properties of water 00000 O Polarity Attracted to itself cohesion Attracted to other polar molecules adhesion Liquid stategt hydrogen bonds are being formed and broken all the timeup to 4 hydrogen bonds at a time Water has higher heat of vaporization because the hydrogen bonds are always breaking and reforming Ocean obsorbs heat coming to places near the coast and it releases heat when the area is cold Moderates temperature Insulation When water freezes the hydrogen bonds are stable and expand by about 10 molecules are further apart less dense than liquid water This makes ice oatwhen ice forms it rises to the top and insulates the water underneath which is why life can live in water even in the cold Practically universal solvent Hydration shellwater surrounds the ions on the surface and pull it awaycreates a solution Colloidprotein solution that is near the transition from liquid to gel Cells are colloids Hydrophilicwater loving Hydrophobicwater fearing Hydrophilic ions and polar molecules Hydrophobic nonpolar and not ionic Determining solute concentrations in aqueous solutions 0 Have to know atomic weight of atoms involved 0 Know molecular weightcombined atomic weights of atoms in the molecule Avogadro39s number 6022x1023 o 1 mole o 1 gram of atom Molarity o 1 molar solution is the expression of the exact concentration in a liquid medium Equation to remember 0 Volume of solution in L x Molarity molL moles Acids Bases and pH 0 H20 ltgt HOH39 o ltgt ionization o pH ogH Acids o Decrease pH below 70 0 pH down hydrogen ion up 0 Proton donators 0 Strong acids Can completely ionize in water 0 Weak acids Weak proton donor 0 H x OH 1x1039 L4 Bases 0 Pick up protonsproton acceptors 0 Strong bases 39 Completely ion ize 0 Weak bases 39 Don39t change pH much Buffers 0 Chemicals that keep DH from changing too much 39 Ad a39rC39Ii39dgt preteen 39 batslew release p mton