Week 3 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layla Courtney on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Stephen Stack in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
99 Carbon and Molecular diversity of life Chapter 4 Organic moleculescarbon based molecules Carbon valence of 4can pick up or drop 4 electrons Carbon is a fundamental atom in living systems Can form 4 covalent bonds Carbon compounds have shape Double bound carbon at molecule planar Carbon molecules can vary in length no limit to of carbon atoms in a chain Carbon chains can vary in shape 0 Same chemical formula different shape Carbon chains can form rings Hydrocarbon molecules consist of Hydrogen and Carbon only 0 ln membranes living systems 0 Petroleum nonliving systems 0 Sidechains Groups of atoms attached to organic molecules Often change the function of molecules and are called functional groups Side groups Rrest of molecule Name Structure Acidbase Charge Name of molecul Hydroxyl ROH Neutral Partial Alcohols positive Carbonyl RO Neutral Partial End of chain negative aldehyde Middleketones Carboxyl RCOOH Acid weak Negative Carboxylic acids Amino RNH3 Base Positive Amine Sulfhydryl RSH Neutral Partial Thiol positive Phosphate RPO4 Acidweak Negative Organic phospha39 Methyl RCH3 Neutral No charge Methyl name of molecule All of the side groups are functional groups 0 lsomers Molecules w the same molecular formula but different structure Structural lsomers Differ in shape Cistrans geometric isomers Double bond between carbons Cisisomer X39s atoms on same side Transisomer X39s on opposite sides Enantiomersoptical isomerschiral isomers Need a symmetric carbon atom Bonded to four different things 911 Structure and function of large biomoecuar molecules 0 Carbohydrates Sugars and polymers of sugars Aldose sugarsalways the lst carbon where aldehyde group is Keto sugar starts closest to keto group Variations of sugar Length Location of carbonyl Endaldehyde Not endketo Location of hydroxyl group on asymmetric carbon Alpha glucosehydroxyl pointed down Beta glucosehydroxyl pointed up Abbreviate ring structureassume there is a carbon at each cornerangle Dehydration between 2 sugar molecules Creates glyosidic linkages forms a disaccharide Polysaccharides Made same way as disaccharides o Lipids Hydrophobic molecules 3 types Fats glycerol and fatty acids Phospholipids Steroids sterols 0 Proteins Polymers of amino acids 0 Nucleic acids Polymers of nucleotides Macromolecules 0 Polymers built of monomers Large molecules built up from subunits o Polymerization growthlengthening by dehydration Depolymerization shortening by hydrolysis These reactions are mediated by enzymes
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