FHS 330 (kerrie) Week 2 Lecture Notes
FHS 330 (kerrie) Week 2 Lecture Notes FHS 330
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Endo on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FHS 330 at University of Oregon taught by Kerrie Walkters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Individual and Group Intervention I in Child and Family Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
FHS 330 Week 2 Lecture Notes Kerrie Basic Assumptions of Behaviorism o People s behaviors are largely the result of their experiences with environmental stimuli I If raising your hand gets Kerrie to call on you and you get called on it s working I The writing of our behavior is called conditioning 0 Learning is the relationships among stimuli and responses 0 Learning involves a behavior change I Note that this does not include mental events 0 Learning is most likely to occur when the stimuli and response occur continuously Classical Conditioning 0 A form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired due to two stimuli being presented simultaneously I Ex Pavlov s dog tonefood I Ex someone get s in a car accident and they associate the car with the trauma of the accident heart races sweating etc conditioning I Ex working with a young child and abuser wore a certain perfume condition that whoever is wearing this perfume is going to hurt him Operant Conditioning 0 Environment either encourages it or punishes it I Ex raising hand get called on raise hand more The environmental behavior after the response conditions your behavior 0 This theory proposes that we learn something to do something because the consequences are so desirable that we are inclined to do the behavior again I Reinforcement 0 Or behaviors can be unlearned or stopped because the consequences are such that we are inclined to NOT do the behavior again I Punishment 0 Some people especially kids9 can continue to act a certain way even though the outcome reaction is negative reinforcement because he she wants attention or to be acknowledged 0 Some things can be reinforcing and we don t know is reinforcing It depends if they re doing the behavior more or less in response Have to ask what is making this behavior happen more often What is making the behavior happen less Reinforcements and Punishments O The purpose of reinforcement is to increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur again The purpose of punishment is to decrease the likelihood that a behavior will occur again Both can be given in a positive or negative form I Positive means to add not good I Negative means to subtract not bad Positive vs Negative Reinforcement 0 Positive means a stimulus is added I Positive reinforcement something pleasurable is added to increase the occurrence of the behavior Ex if you can focus on your HW for 30 minutes you can get 15 minutes extra TV time I Positive punishment Ex if you don t focus on your HW for 30 minutes you have 2 extra chores 0 Negative means a stimulus is removed I Negative reinforcement something unpleasant is removed to increase the occurrence of the behavior Ex if you finish the first two chores within 20 minutes you don t have to do the last one I Negative punishment Ex What Works Best 0 Studies show that reinforcement has longer lasting effects on behavioral changes than does punishment 9 basically reinforcement works better than punishment Punishment usually leads to emotions focused on the punisher instead of changing a behavior can also lead to resentment or resistance leads to immediate compliance but often leads to I Ability to avoid being caught I Negative associations with punisher I Only temporary behavior changes Reinforcement encourages the good stuf quot and allows them to know what we want them to do and what is expected punishment doesn t usually teach them what to do Avoidance maintained behaviors supported by negative reinforcement I Ex kid acting up most behaviors are avoidance based they re doing things to avoid something I Ex parent goes to grocery store and kid begins to whine for candy To stop the whining parent gives kid the candy The kid is being positively reinforced and the parent is being negatively reinforced Social Learning Theory 0 one difficulty with many learning theories is their almost exclusive emphasis on the processes of acquisition of behavior and performance and their almost total neglect of the content of personalityquot Observation and modeling humans learn not only being environment is reinforcing but because we watch what other people do and there is a pull for us to copy Albert Bandura s Social Learning Theory I Aka Social Cognitive Theory I Put the person back into personality I Recognized learning can take place without reinforcement Beyond Reinforcement I External reinforcement isn t the only way in which behavior is acquired maintained or altered I We can also learn by observing reading or hearing about others behavior We develop anticipated consequences for our behaviors 0 Even for behaviors we re never engaged in another person s experience can be a learning experience for us which will dictate the actions we take based on a prediction made from this learned experience Our cognitive abilities give us the capability for insight and foresight 0 Self Regulation and Cognition I We can exercise control over our behavior through self regulation We are not slaves to environmental in uence We have free will I Cognition allows us to use previous experiences rather than trialand error to foresee probable consequences of our acts and behave accordingly I Self regulation allows us to choose behaviors 0 Modeling I We learn a lot of what we do through observing and speaking with others models rather than through personal experience I We form a cognitive image of how to perform certain behaviors through modeling and use this image as a guide for later behaviors I Ex Elevator experiment 9 Ache Paradigm The whole family gets to play 0 Coercive family environments Patterson and colleagues I Family members engage in power struggles to control each other through negative coercive tactics Parents are negatively reinforced when their threating yelling and hitting temporarily stops their children s misbehavior o Avoidance is negatively reinforcing 0 But kids are watching kids yell and then model that behavior themselves 9 combo of reinforcement and modeling Children are negatively reinforced when their difficult behavior ignoring request whining temper tantrums successfully stops their parent s behavior Patterson s Social Interactional Developmental Model 1989 0 Children and their environment are in constant interchange o The start of antisocial behavior happens in dysfunctional families harsh and inconsistent discipline little positive parental involvement poor monitoring 0 Family members directly train the child to perform antisocial behaviors F Early childhood Middle childhood Late childhood and adolescence Rejection by normal peers Poor parental Cliild Commitment o39isc plino gt conduct to deviant gt Dennquency a39ld mo39iilming problerr ns peer group Academic failure Behavior detective work 0 Most problem behavior makes sense in context 0 Often we can find a reinforcement pattern 0 Function I What is the behavior due to I What need desire is this behavior meeting 0 Multimodal behaviors often have multiple uses contributing differentially to the expression of the behavior Functions of Problem Behavior 0 Positive reinforcement I Getting something 0 Negative reinforcement I Getting out of something Identifying Functions Maintaining Consequences Given a Problem Behavior Q Object Activity Sensation Avoid Object Activity Sensation i l I ABC Model 0 Gives us the function of things 0 EX a kid is swearing or hitting another kid I Setting Event Ask when is this happening Or when it doesn t happen I Antecedent What comes before the behavior I Problem Behavior I Consequence what happens after the behavior I Additional Antecedents o frustration due to I not knowing expectations I skill deficit I inability to communicate I emotion regulation difficulties 0 Underestimated stimuli I Being ignored I Meaningless repetition I Nonfunctional activity I Pacing too slow 0 Overstimulation I Environment For example number of transitions noise level I Rate of physical prompting or verbalizations I Pace is too fast or chaotic 0 Environmental expectation or models Only Two Basic Functions Problem Behavior Y V II ObtainGet E2333 Something Something V V l Stimulation Tangible Sensory 300839 Activity om Horner amp Sugai Adult Peer at wwwpbisorg
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