Chapter 3 - The Molecules of Life
Chapter 3 - The Molecules of Life Biology 110 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Maris on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 110 002 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Dhameja in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 3 The Molecules of Life 0 Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon 0 Such organic compounds range from simple to colossal molecules 0 Most organic compounds contain hydrogen atoms as well 0 Carbon is easily able to form large diverse and complex molecules 0 Macromolecules are composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms 0 Each cell has thousands of different kinds of macromolecules O Macromolecules are polymers which are long molecules consisting of many similar building blocks called monomers A condensation dehydration reaction occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule 0 Enzymes are macromolecules that speed up that process Polymers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction 0 All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules 0 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material They include sugars and sugar polymers Carbohydrate macromolecules are polysaccharides polymers composed of many sugar building blocks The simplest types are monosaccharides or single sugars 0 Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CHzO Glucose is the most common 0 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules They are the one class that do not form polymers Their unifying feature is having little or no af nity for water They re hydrophobic because they consist mostly of hydrocarbons which form nonpolar covalent bonds The most important lipids are fats proteins and phospholipids Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules 0 Glycerol is a threecarbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon 0 Hydroxyl consists of a hydrogen and an oxygen bonded covalently 0 A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton o Carboxyl groups have a carbonyl group carbon and oxygen connected by a double bond and a hydroxyl group attached to the same carbon 0 Fats separate from water because water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and exclude the fats In a fat three fatty acids are joined to glycerol creating a triacylglycerol triglyceride Saturated fatty acids have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds 0 Proteins account for more than 50 of the dry mass of most cells I Proteins provide structural support storage cellular communications storage movement and defense against foreign substances I Enzymes are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions Enzymes can perform their functions repeatedly functioning as workhorses that carry out the processes of life 0 Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information I The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a unit of inheritance called a gene I There are two types of nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA makes up genes and provides directions for its replication It s also a direct synthesis of messenger RNA mRNA and through mRNA controls protein synthesis Ribonucleic acid RNA consists of mRNA and tRNA transfer RNA Which deciphers the mRNA code
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