Chapter 4 - A Tour of the Cell
Chapter 4 - A Tour of the Cell Biology 110 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Maris on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 110 002 at University of South Carolina - Columbia taught by Dr. Dhameja in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at University of South Carolina - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell Basic features of all cells 0 Plasma membrane 0 Chromosomes which carry genes 0 Cytosol which is a semi uid substance 0 Ribosomes which make proteins Eukaryotic cells make up protists fungi animals and plants 0 They are characterized as having I DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope I Membranebound organelles I Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus 0 They are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells 0 They have internal membranes that partition the cell into organelles 0 Plant and animal cells have most of the same organelles Prokaryotic cells make up bacteria and archaea 0 They are characterized as having I No nucleus I DNA in an unbound region called the nucleoid I No membranebound organelles I Cytoplasm bound by the plasma membrane The nucleus contains most of the cell s genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle O The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus separating it from the cytoplasm O The nuclear membrane is a double membrane Each membrane consists of a lipid bilayer which determines what can and can t enter 0 In the nucleus DNA and proteins form genetic material called chromatin which condenses to form chromosomes 0 The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA rRNA synthesis Ribosomes are particles made of rRNA and protein 0 They carry out protein synthesis in two locations I In the cytosol free I On the the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope bound The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 0 It has multiple components I Nuclear envelope I Endoplasmic reticulum ER which accounts for more than half of the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells 0 It s continuous with the nuclear envelope 0 The smooth ER lacks ribosomes O Synthesizes lipids metabolizes carbohydrates detoxifies poison and stores calcium 0 The rough ER has ribosomes studding its surface 0 Has bound ribosomes that secrete glycoproteins proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates and is a membrane factory for the cell 39 Golgi apparatus Which consists of attened membranous sacs called cisternae analogous to a post office 0 Modifies products of the ER manufactures some macromolecules and sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles I Lysosomes 39 Vacuoles Which perform different types of maintenance 0 Food vacuoles are formed by phagocytosis Which is the ingestion of cell fragments by portions of the cell membrane 0 Contractile vacuoles found in many freshwater protists pump excess water out of cells 0 Central vacuoles found in many mature plant cells hold organic compounds and water I Plasma membrane Which is a selective barrier that allows enough passage of oxygen nutrients and waste to service the volume of every cell 0 Like the nuclear membrane it has a double layer of phospholipids O The components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles Organelles that aren t part of the endomembrane system have proteins made by free ribosomes a double membrane and contain their own DNA 0 Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration a metabolic process that generates ATP 0 Chloroplasts found in plants and algae are the sites of photosynthesis O Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles
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