Popular in Race, Gender and Class in Latin America
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This 7 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Friday November 7, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to HSTLAC 185 at a university taught by Prof. Silvia-Rodriguez in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 92 views.
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Date Created: 11/07/14
HSTLAC 185 11614 PostIndependence 0 Immediate PostInd Years 0 Political fragmentation I Lots of different values and interests across large countries in South America Different regions thus have different social and political organizations 0 Caudillaje Politics I Essentially royal bosses who are sent to mediate the differeing intersts in the regions of the countries I Constant negotiation or constant civil War 0 Constant Warfare and patronage I Leads to autocratic political systems I Local relationships in the fighting In uential cattle ranchers for instance would bring gauchos to the fight I Patron Client Relationships full of tension and lots of exchange Essential to Caudillaje politics I Families travel together during the Wars Would not find a traveling group of only men but the story of postindependence is a story of men 0 Decimated population as a result of Wars I Not only by killing but also through displacement from destruction famine disasters etc 0 Military and War become Ways of mobility I People fight not only because they believe in the fight but also because they have the ability to gain rewards and prominence in the military 0 Lack of central government leads to increased banditry I Some veterans leave the fight and go home Others decide to Wander and support themselves through killing and thieving I Crucial people become bandits People who are trying to challenge the authority of the Caudillaje s would be labeled as bandits I The people trying to act against the Caudillaje s inevitably become authoritarian because they have to start out as a military organization However due to prolonged war they do not have money 0 Economic devastation I Treasuries are bankrupt in many areas 0 No one has been producing anything but war material for decades Public debt 0 Few people have money to pay locally have to look outside SA to Europe 0 Help from Europeans leads to a cycle of public debt that would be repeated from the 18 to the 20th century New states in need of loans 0 Outsource to shady creditors Loans from Britain I In need of resources 0 Land and trade remain mostly in the hands of the same colonial elite I Few people lose their land and many merchants are able to stay where they were and weather the crisis 0 Political Line archetypes 0 Two parties emerge in postindependence was not allowed during the colonial period I Brought about revolution because people realized the power they had in creating political factions I The lines between the parties are not set in stone They often blur depending on the region the Liberal or Conservative person might live It becomes difficult to tell what is a Liberal and what is a Conservative in some cases 0 Liberals I Provincial landowners and urban professionals I Secularization I Separation of church and state Completely separate They want a political process I Citizenship Everyone is equal indigenous or not slave owner or not Social mobility through work Make everything accessible across the board I Free Trade Colonial period trade dominated by mother country and mercantilism Dictated restrictions on trade ports available countries you were allowed to trade with etc The 19 century becomes the time of growing free trade I Federalism 0 Conservatives Recognize that regions are different so they want an overarching federal system that will help settle regional differences Does not work in the end by the end of the century we see the rise of the dictators liberal and conservative I Old urban aristocracy and large landowners I Catholic Church Want things the way they were with the convents of the colonial period I Corporate society maintain old privileges Catholic Church has privileges for members People not affiliated are excluded from these privileges An army officer would be excluded from Church privileges but given their own Privileges are based on taxes Different degrees of tax exemptions Access to organizations such as education politics clergy etc Not distributed to everyone distributed by groups Corporate Society I Monopolies Want one person or a few running entire industries I Protectionism 0 Protect our production 0 Tariffs on imports want to be self sufficient I Centralization 0 Basically old colonial system 0 1850s1880s 0 Foundations for integration into world markets I Rebuilding infrastructure that was decimated in the period of civil wars 0 Peru may be the best example of this They discover how powerful the guano industry is for fertilizers Europe falls in love with the poo I Rise of the train in Latin America 0 Cuba has the first to transport sugar est 1850 0 Brazil follows in order to transport coffee I Establishing laws to dismantle colonial state and implement new laws 0 Selling of public land 0 Need to move land and make it more productive Colonial elites would just sit on large tracts of land while only using some of it 0 Create a land market and target church properties as well as indigenous communal lands I Indigenous people have always used communal ownership of land Could not sell before because there was no one owner of their lands I Mexico s persistence in this endeavor sets off a long war between the church and state 0 Creates money for the treasury and the state I Abolition of slavery 0 Had to reform the labor laws along with land laws 0 People were gaining freedom on an individual basis during the Wars This was not the same as total abolition which comes in the 1850s to most of Latin America 0 Now everyone will work but for low Wages 0 Will Willingly Work for low Wages to get off of the land that they had been enslaved on 0 Mobility of the freed slaves many move to cities Many Women slaves were able to negotiate contracts Where they could bring their children with them To prevent this movement labor laws are passed 0 Vagrancy Laws are the development of rural police making sure that people stay put and become involved in a labor contract 0 Restartig Economies of Export 0 Increase in European demands Wars I Europe shape economies of Latin America which are some of Europes main providers Urbanization of Europe requires food Industrial growth needs raw materials Latin America is able to produce these commodities and export them to Europe Argentina beef Wool Wheat Chile copper Brazil coffee rubber Cuba coffee sugar tobacco Mexico Agave sugar zinc copper oil Central America coffee bananas Peru sugar and silver Bolivia tin 0 Imports Not a diverse export economy Leads to monopolies and economic vulnerabilities ie an economy based on sugar losses badly When a bad crop or disaster prevents their one export from being produced If your main trading partner is at War or unable to trade your economy losses and goes bankrupt Agriculture for export is the Achilles heel of independent Latin America 0 Becomes and continues to be a major problem Textiles 0 Foreign investment grows considerably Britain was the heaviest investor they Were all over the continent Britain France and US mining in Mexico Chile and Peru US invests in Northern Mexico through private companies These companies took over and monopolized the resources of the LA countries US and Europeans invade Latin American countries to take over their resources US starts paying off LA debts so that they owe US after Control of key sectors in foreign hands 0 Immigration schemes Need more labor and population to settle frontier areas Get Japanese and Chinese to fill the empty spaces because they didn t trust the natives Need to replace slave labor and bring Portuguese to Work the land Port Do not respond Well and go back to the city Start bringing South Asian and Chinese indentured Workers to take over the labor void Racial concerns felt they were too dark and Wanted to whiten the country Bring in Aryan Germans and other Europeans to clean out peoples blood The German people Were not very enticed to move to these rural areas but the Portuguese Spanish and Italians Were Workers who move to the cities especially European immigrants begin unionizing 0 Strong government dictators and oligarchies I modern and progress are the Words of the dictators seeking to civilize and discipline people to modern progressive standards
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