Notes from 11/6/14
Popular in Colonial North America
Popular in History
This 3 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Friday November 7, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to HSTAA 301 at a university taught by Prof. Johnson in 2014. Since its upload, it has received 141 views.
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Date Created: 11/07/14
The Great Awakening of the 1740s 11614 o Yearning for less formal more gracefull amp awefull religion German pietism English Methodism 0 John Wesley decides he has to leave the Anglican Church and founds his own religious group the Methodists which became powerful in the US later in the 18th and 19 centuries 0 George Whitefield one of Wesley s most influential followers instigated the Great Awakening religious revival Early colonial revivals Theodore Frelinghusen Gilbert Tennant Jonathan Edwards 0 Frelinghusen brought German pietism to the Americas Stressed that written sermons were not needed and spoke against educated clergy 0 Tennant preached this message in the back country of the south 0 Edwards began preaching in New England resulting in religious fervor that settled down by 1736 o English evangelist George Whitefield to America 1739 and widespread revival in wake of his welladvertised travels Nathan Cole s testimony 0 Whitefield was the catalyst to the religious reaction 0 Religions had rivalries in the colonies especially as new sects moved into areas that had traditionally been of a different sect IE Anglicans moving into a Congregationalist area 0 Religious competition aided Whitefield in spreading his fervent message which had already forced him out of England Not seen as a missionary but as a reformer to the Church of England The great strength of Whitefield was the simplicity of his sermons using easy to understand language and using messages which applied to day to day life 0 He was unusually well equipped to spread this message he was a natural orator with a strong booming voice Ben Franklin stated that Whitefield could be heard by 32000 and it was said he could make people faint merely by uttering the word Mesopotamia 0 First public relations genius He advertised himself very well Wherever he arrived he was welcomed by adoring crowds of thousands 0 Money was collected in Philly to create a hall in which GW could preach Even Ben Franklin gave him money which was difficult to do 0 In the first of his 7 tours GW preached to large crowds in some places balconies collapsed and gave a sermon in Boston to 20000 people when the population of the city was only about 17000 When he went back to England in 1741 after his first tour he left America in a state of Great Awakening The Awakening was the first national experience for people in America 0 Following his tour church membership increased by up to 85 0 Farmer Nathaniel Cole upon hearing of GW s approach dropped what he was doing and jumped on his horse at a gallop headed 12 miles to catch GW s sermon Ran into a huge traffic stream of horses and got to a meeting house with 3 4000 other people When he saw GW he described him as angelical and said that his voice put Cole into a fear and fever Cole s former self was broken up and he immersed himself into GW s message Wrestled with his anxieties with God which led him to the clergy 0 Even before GW opened his mouth he was emotionally open which helped him to connect with the people listening to his sermons 0 Spread a message of a loving god 0 Instances of mass hysteria people got caught up in the movement The revivalists touched on the social changes which were occurring at the time Encouraged a new start a New Birth 0 His success was followed by criticism 0 The New Birth wider participation by blacks women as Sarah Osborn of Newport but conservative fears of enthusiasm and social disorder matched by revivalist charges against dead clergy 0 Casting away of the old sins and beginning anew 0 Wider congregational attendance of young people blacks and women 0 After reading a sermon of GW s a minister was coerced to give sermons late into the night by his followers 0 Traditionalists felt that conversion was more graceful than those who had spent a lifetime in religious teachings 0 Osborn gained such an in uence that when their minister retired she was able to dominate the proceedings to choose a New Light preacher as his successor o Religious schism Old v New Lights rise of Baptists and itinerants In sum 0 Over enthusiastic converts were called New Light Biggots 0 In response GW launched a campaign stating that current ministers were not real ministers Wrote in 1740 that congregations were dead because dead men preached to them 0 Followers like Tennant and Davenport took up this cry and began slandering other ministers of the pulpits 0 Itinerants roaming nonordained ministers would arrive in towns and give a sermon and leave rather than stay on as a permanent preachers 0 Led to the expansion of the Baptist churches and later in the 19 century the Methodists By 1850 each of these sects had over 2000 churches in the US 0 In Norwich religious rivalries split the town up into 7 different parishes by 1760 One of these leaders later became a prominent wandering aesthetic during the revolution 0 Churches and colleges began splitting based on views New vs Old Lights Yale began expelling people based on their beliefs Hastened transition from sectarian orthodoxy to denominational pluralism more colleges for training and towards a lively religious marketplace within an overarching tolerant state 0 College of New Jersey later Princeton University emerges as a training ground for clergy 0 Became impossible to retain a singular church in a colony Sects gave way to denominations which were often more willing to reform and could be somewhat less conservative 0 The market place that these religions became turned these preachers into salesmen Religion as the first free enterprise 0 Religion became an identifying factor in the lives of the colonial citizens 0 Challenged the belief that the existing order had a monopoly over the people Passions ran high and some ministers were torn down midsermon and replaced by New Lights 0 Pioneered the radical religious preaching that exists to this day o Awakening as national experience 0 Grew from the ground up encompassed everyone in the country which helped with the huge expansion of Baptist groups 0 17801820 baptist churches grew from 2 churches to 2700 0 Quakers became more radical at this time and women preachers began spreading the Quaker message Mary Westin arrived in Connecticut and her message upstaged the town s traditional minister The message was more important than the vessel 0 The wandering preachers brought religion to every home in the colonies America is at the forefront of the divine favor encompassing the world at the time 0 God was breaking down the tyrannical and unfriendly empires in the minds of the religious o Heightened millenarian expectations eroded deference as Baptists in VA denied law and authority their sanctifying power
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