Cultural Anthropology Week 2
Cultural Anthropology Week 2 ANT 204 - 09 (Anthropology, Angela L Reed, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Yaffa on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 204 - 09 (Anthropology, Angela L Reed, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology) at Grand Valley State University taught by Angela Lockard Reed in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Anthropology Notes week 2 September 11 2015 Topic 2 Colonialism and Society Anthropology was called on to make sense of differences between cultures Cultural anthropology became a formal discipline during colonialism Since anthropology grew during this time many of the societies being studied had already been conquered or conquering Acculturation Studies 20th Century This refers to taking note of changes that occur when traditional societies come in contact with more powerful state societies Salvage or Urgent Anthropology colonialism now Research that documents endangered societies MultiSited Ethnography The investigation and documentation of peoples and cultures embedded in the bigger structure of a globalizing world This uses a variety of locations Populations are increasingly scattered across the globe yet they are still intertwined StudyUp The ethnographic studies of bureaucracies and other government regulatory agencies banks realtors law firms and communications industry Note When studying other cultures societies look upquot to the wealthy the powerful and the colonizers Advocacy Anthropology Research that is community based and politically involved In this case the anthropologist is trying to make a positive difference in a community that needs assistance of some kind What to know about conducting Fieldwork Fieldwork Contrary to popular belief fieldwork is not always conducted in far off counties with exotic peoples Field methods require that you be objective about the society Do not make judgments just observe the facts and remain culturally relative These methods are also subjective because it involves engaged participation of the anthropologist Participate Observation It is important to participate in the culture In order to be accepted by the people it is imperative to take part in their lives so that they will be more willing to share details about their culture Key Consultant Informant A member of a society being studied who provides information that helps researchers understand the meaning of what they observe Qualities needed to be a good informant Language should be uent in the language and a language to translate Availability should be able to accompany the anthropologist whenever needed Willing to share information should be able to discuss delicate topics about the culture Outsiderquot within the culture Information Gathering Informal Interview An unstructured and openended conversation in everyday life Formal Interview A structured question answer session carefully notated as it occurs Questions are prepared ahead of time Informed Consent Formal recorded agreement from member of society being studied to participate in research Three ways to collect data Note Social Norms such as 339 The peoples own understanding of the rules they share 339 The extent to which people believe they are observing those rules 339 The behavior that is directly observed should be considered Fieldwork produces the information that becomes the subject of study Interpretation Making sense of situations and observations through comparison Translation Working out what the meaning of culture is in a situation of interaction between others Dialectical Relationships A network of cause and effect in which the various causes and effects affect each other Systematic Fieldwork Procedures Site Population Selection This is typically outside of ones own culture and needs lots of planning Permits funding and permission are required Hypothesis Research Question It is important to set up a hypothesis and test to study it Note Testing adds to participant observation research Data Gathered Quantitative Data Qualitative Data Statistical or measurable information Information such as personal life such as quantities of crops or stories customary beliefs and population numbers customary practices Theory A proposed explanation used as a mode of classification Anthropological Theories Unilineal Evolution A 19th Century theory that proposed a series of stages through which all societies must go or have gone in order to reach civilization Lewis Henry Morgan stated mankind commenced their career at the bottom of the scale and worked their way up from savagery to civilizationquot Unilineal Scale 339 Savagery fishing fire bow and arrow 339 Barbarianism pottery plant and animal domestication irrigation 339 Civilization invention of phonetic alphabet writing Criticisms of Unilineal Evolution Ethnocentric Racist Ethnographically inaccurate Does not account for the process of change Does not account for cultural differences Idealistic Perspective The way that others view the world ideas and values This theory is usually held among psychological and cognitive anthropologists who study culture and personality It typically interprets cultures and symbols Materialist Perspective Focuses on the infrastructure material conditions in cultural research and analysis NeoEvolution Focuses on the way technology effects efficiency in a culture Cultural Ecology Focuses on environmental adaption of a culture Political Economy Focuses on industrial production and capitalist markets Sociobiology Focuses on genetic biology and the effect it has on behavior Cultural Materialism Focuses on the interaction of culture with economics and the environment Structural Functionalism The study of how particular social forms function from day to day in order to reproduce the traditional structure of the society Each custom and belief has a specific function that serves to perpetuate the structure of that society
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