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Week of October 5

by: Sophia Shore

Week of October 5 PSCI 150 001

Sophia Shore
GPA 3.65
Introduction to International Relations
Jessica Stanton

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Week of October 5 - Cold War
Introduction to International Relations
Jessica Stanton
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 150 001 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Jessica Stanton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Week of October 5 The Cold War Lecture Outline The Cold War I What is the Cold War 0 Military stalemate between two dipoles I US had 2 million troops Soviet had 5 million troops 0 Didn t actually fight but there were several limited wars I USSR Afghanistan I US Korea Vietnam 0 Causes of the Cold war 0 Realism Changes in material capabilities I Changes in distribution of power multipole to dipole I Europe and Japan could no longer compete collapse of Germany into East and West I Security dilemma exacerbates the offensivedefensive intentions Impt How does it apply Hard to know intentions O Constructivism Con icting ideologies I Different ideas about how to organize politics and economy 0 US democratic capitalist USSR socialist communist 0 These differences in ideology also made it difficult to interpret policy uncertainty in the international system 0 Misconception is highly possible 0 Led them to see each other as enemies 0 Because communist ideology was revolutionist this led to aggressive foreign policies for USSR YOU CAN PLACE BLAME with constructivism 0 Or you could argue opposite US demanded US domination capitalist world I Domestic Politics ideological appeals and the struggle for power domestically 0 If we want to understand the importance of ideology we must understand domestic political struggles how do you garner support 0 Major Characteristics of Cold War 0 Containment and the consolidation of alliances I Maintain control exact preventative measures 0 US wanted to maintain control over west 0 US practiced containment policy I George Kennett Resist Soviet expansion I March 1947 Greece and Turkey resistance I Marshall Plan Response to economic hardship in soviet bloc I See Nato and warsaw pact countries 0 Formation of NATO in 1949 O I Western Europe Canada and US Warsaw Pact USSR and Eastern Europe I Central for their security often fought against Germany through eastern Europe 0 Limited Wars in Vietnam and Korea 0 O O War that doesn t escalate outside that area Refers to the idea with two countries with nuclear weaponry that don t have wars that escalate to that Korea 195053 I Korea split but no troops in 1949 I June 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea so US responded to communist aggression 0 US increased size of military NATO Europe forces after con ict Vietnam 19651975 I A lot of people do not think of this as a limited war Vietnamese do not think it is limited I Advocates emphasized the domino theory to contain communism Bay of Pigs 1963 Various internal con icts US backing rebel groups USSR backing communists I Mozambique Nicaragua Angola rebel groups for US and governments in the Philippines 0 All of these smallscale wars but why didn t they lead to the big wars 0 0 Think about it See Global Nuclear stockpiles 19451968 I Why didn t it escalate 0 How to make nuclear retaliation threat credible O 0 US Wanted to deter communist expansion into Western Europe USSR 0 Does the US have enough nuclear weapons that would survive the first strike to find a second strike Submarines are important 0 Cuban Missile Crisis I October 1962 closest they came to nuclear war I Crisis Diplomacy what tactics to use if the goal is to avoid war I Short range nuclear missiles in Cuba placed by USSR US had long range missiles to hit USSR 0 42 medium range missiles 9 short range missiles 0 Kennedy meets with advisors consensus was that missiles needed to leave 0 US Blockade of Cuba USSR called it an act of war I Advantages shifted move to USSR I Disadvantages didn t do anything about presence of missiles in Cuba 0 Diplomacy How do you prepare for war and simultaneously avoid it 0 USSR agreed to dismantle US agreed not to invade 0 Agreement of US to remove missiles in Turkey 0 Why did the Cold War end 0 Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989 I Communist governments begin to fall East Germany Czechoslovakia Romania Poland etc I Soviet troops didn t try to intervene to stop fall 0 Many of these states in the bloc lobbied for independence and were recognized O Baltics September 1991 entire Soviet Union December I East Germany held elections unified Germany in 1990 I Fall of Ideological divide O Realist explanation changes in material capabilities I Gorbachev had little choice but to make changes 0 Economic decline in the USSR 0 Nuclear capabilities so why was it so peaceful O Deterred Soviet Union from using military force I Dipolar to multipolar I Challenges about this explanation I Realists writing about power transitions are not likely to explain soviet behavior 0 Peripheral areas can be explained Afghanistan but not central areas Eastern Europe 0 Why were they willing to make concessions 0 Power transition arguments claim that the declining hegemon is likely to launch a preventative war against the challenging power but we don t see the USSR fight US I Constructivist 0 End of Cold War can be explained by changing ideas Fukuyama O Soviet ideas tended toward capitalism at the end constructivists view end as victory for western world 0 Doesn t explain why it shifted so drastically away from Socialism Can constructivism explain rapidity of change Can constructivism explain why the shift was to liberal ideas and not some alternative Constructivism and domestic politics 0 Changes in ideas among important leaders 0 Reagan and Gorbachev adopt liberal ideas Change in Gorbachev s ideas opened idea of no con ict to US 0 When the General Secretary of Communist Party alters ideas it makes changes easier Arms control with US moratorium on nuclear testing reductions in US and Soviet nuclear arsenals Unilateral reduction in soviet conventional forces in 1988 198788 moved away from Soviet control in Eastern Europe Withdrew soviet troops from Afghanistan Perestroika movement toward market based economy 0 Attempt to deal with economic stagnation Glasnost openness freedom of the press to an extent 0 Greater competition 0 Personal relationship with Reagan Shared belief that the world without nuclear weapons is best 0 Wendt Constructivists Difficult to separate individual beliefs We need to understand decline in soviet ideology more broadly within the international system 0 What does the end of the Cold War mean for the future of interstate con ict 0 Rising Power Rising power was thought to bring instability because there was a lot of new uncertainty Mearsheimer as Europe moved toward multipolarity con ict would increase hasn t really happened Maybe china will rise to challenge US 0 Liberal peace Huntington s clash of civilizations O Fukuyama Cold war ended because liberal ideology won out over socialist ideology Against the neorealist idea that states always fight and are subject to con ict Universal national interest doesn t exist because ideologies are different Without ideological basis war is not legitimate War is unlikely between liberal states but likely between non liberal and liberal states 0 The First Gulf War 1991


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