Sociology 1101-- Ch. 7 Notes
Sociology 1101-- Ch. 7 Notes Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Bowling on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology) at Ohio State University taught by Steven Lopez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Sociology Ch 7 STRATIFICATION In the US the correlation between parentchild quotsocial classes is about 84 meaning that what your parent does education and career wise you are 84 likely to follow a very similar path Inequality is a result of surplus Views of Inequality 17501782 influenced the political ideas of the French Revolution and development of socialist thought humankind naturally good and pure idea people had the right to own something According to Rousseau this is the primary source of social problems a condition in which no differences in which no differences in wealth power prestige or status based on nonnatural bases exist Two types of 1 natural a difference in age health bodily strength and the qualities of the mind or of the soul 2 a difference in wealth honor power or authority over others Both lead to prejudices discriminations and ultimately social conflict 17661834 The Scottish Enlightenment saw inequality as necessary The establishment of private property leads to higher degrees of social organization and efficiency People will work harder and work to build up society as they try to gain personal wealth and assets 9 improving society as a byproduct BasicallY nequaity also keeps the population in check with less resources less likelihood of reproduction and overpopulating more overpopulation more social conflict Therefore having less population good a situation in which population growth leads to increased poverty not to abundance eg Africa huge population growth extreme poverty 17701831 German philosopher viewed history in terms of master slaveservant relationships a twodirection relationship following a pattern in which one person creates an ideathesis and the other person points out flaws with the idea and creates an antithesis and then the first responds and so on hopefully leading to a compromise made of elements of both positions and views The slave is dependent on the master for necessities and the master is dependent on the slave for basic duties of survival Still exist today estimate 3927 million people considered slaves Exploited in terms of work and sex in exchange for safety and basic needs Hege believes the world is moving slowly but surely to equality for all though as we move towards more democratic and equal systems Standards of Equality the idea that everyone has equal chance to achieve wealth social prestige and power because the rules are equal for everyone Lose or win based on luck and skillchoices The standard model of a a society of commerce in which the max of profit is the primary business incentive eg modern capitalist societies using affirmative action which involves preferential selection of those underprivileged in order to equal out the playing field in terms of relative starting positions in society when people or a group in a gatekeeper position actively select some applicants who haven t faced an even playing field often due to sexism or racism eg college admissions counsel selects minorities based on their race the idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the quotgamequot Similar to Marxist Communist ideology the idea that everyone contributes to society in the way they can and yet everyone still receives the same reward Individual incentives are replaced by altruistic incentives the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done some may shrink their responsibilities and hope someone else may take on the extra load eg group projects This is a possible problem of the equality of outcome Forms of Stratification Can be based on age birth order gender race and ethnicity 1 a politicallybased system characterized by limited mobility Laws separate rights and duties of separate individuals and distribute power unequally eg landowners nobility in feudal Europe during the medieval era 2 a religionbased system characterized by NO social mobility eg India s quotVarnaquot system composed of four main castes having little to no individual mobility in a social system having the entire caste eve move up in the hierarchy of a social system 3 an economicbased system characterized by cohesive oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility Problems with class the definitive lines are blurred you can t tell what class someone is just by looking at their income corresponds more with the role rather than the person s ideas capitalistic society boils down to two classes that inherently conflict sells its labor to the bourgeoisie in order to receive wages for survival employ the proletariat class extract surplus from them in an exploitative manner Not repaying them enough for the value of their work modern Marxist theorist suggests that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between two quotpurequot classes eg managers are laborers AND quotowners Also can apply to class locations multiple jobs class locations impact of relationships with family in other class locations and class locations eg manager works on the floor before becoming fu manager functionalist argues that a class is distinguishes based on the similar value that have in the commercial marketplace in terms of selling their own property and labor 4 based on the social prestige of a group Max Weber Basically that class is defined based on similarities in lifestyles and consumption manners not just income 5 a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold power in society The Mind and Society believes if the individuals in power are the most able better society in the end Need a mix of quotlions and foxes both the strong and decisive with the innovative and intelligent 20 of people cause a disproportionately large influence in policy as if they were 80 of the population a society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes abilities and achievements The Power Elite believes elitemass dichotomy is not natural or beneficial because the elite do not govern the way Pareto claims they do Argued the following three major institutional forces in American societies have been too centralized 1 a few hundred GIANT corporations holding the keys to economic decisions 2 the increasing concentration towards the central gov and away from the states and localities 3 the largest and most expensive form of government These institutions are shaping what we consider quotmodern life and the people in power here are elite because they have the most money power and prestige Eite come to power based on their relationships and positions with others not on their skill and knowledge and qualifications Furthermore the elite exchange positions of power among themselves making it harder for others to come to power because the relationships within the group of the elite are too strong Economic Stratification Money is the underlying dimension of this kind Social class if based on income and wealth based on how much you re making Net assets including debts Economic inequality vs poverty refers to the magnitude of distance between the bottom and the top in terms of wealth distributions refers to the actual hardship at the bottom NOT same concepts growing inequality doesn t necessarily mean poverty is growing too The current context just recognize the facts not necessarily memorize the and s specifically The and its aftermath aka quotthe Lesser Depression 2008 present Based on the graph the Great Recession has seen the deepest loss of employment and longest recovery time since WW2 Took two years to wipe out 9 million jobs and nearly 4 years to gain them back Unemployment spiked to 10 and took much longer to recover from and now is currently 5 which isn t too bad these people are actively looking for work In terms of total unemployed including those looking are underemployed doing part time was 175 and still today it s around 10 job seekersopening during the beginning of recovery was nearly 61 can t find work Recently its 141 Much better Middlewage jobs were the ones mostly lost and had hard time recovering creates quot meaning that most jobs came back in form of highwage and lowwage jobs This is contributing to economic inequality Unemployed for 6 months of longer during the recovery peaked around 45 but even now it s 25 of people being out of work for 6 months or longer The percentage of civilian employmentpopulation ratio is still very low quot59 t s hard to get employed based on current employment if you re not employed it s harder to get reemployed and age older workers more expensive From 1947 1979 as Americans become more productive wages and salaries increased BUUUU39ITI39 1980 present as American production is growing exponentially wages and salaries have become almost stagnant Top fifth percentile still increasing exponentially though The benefits of the growing economy amp the income growth isn t going towards the average worker but towards those at the top After WW2 the bottom 90 experienced huge amounts of income growth while the top 10 experienced some but not as much But as the time went on the income of the top 10 begins to increase dramatically and by the 1990s it was doing extremely better than the bottom 10 And now even during the recovery the bottom 90 are experiencing extreme DECLINE in average income growth and the top 10 are expanding even more Leading to a huge redistribution of wealth within our economy Since 1979 to 2010 the top 1 have been the ones of the top 5 actually gaining the income growth while the top 53 LOST income growth And the top 2 barely had a growth in income How is the US stratified today an individual s positions in a stratified social order money received by a person for work or from returns on investments a family s or individual s net worth total assets minus total debts 1 the economic elite The group at the top of the socioeconomic food chain Make their money more from returns on investments rather than wages 1 of US fall into this category These were the people whose incomes were quot263 times greater as a CEO than the average American worker This group also has extreme power and prestige they can promote their personal agendas and influence a lot of other categories in the economy Influence is much greater than their numbers should predict 2 a term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual labor jobs that pay significantly above the poverty line Hard to define quot3990 of Americans consider themselves middle class Post WW2 the manual jobs boomed and the manual laborjobs like firemen plumbing etc became well paid enough to send kids to school and wellprovide for families This is known as the into the middle class Also the development of the service sector and the decline in the production sector has further eroded the traditional manualnonmanua distinction between the working and the middle class Factoryjobs declined service jobs eg waitress rose ncome inequality and income insecurity also have risen in the middle class meaning that the incomes vary more greatly and the percentage of likelihood of having their salaries cut in half from one year to the next rose from 7 to 17 3 the poverty line for a family of four was 23550 in 2013 Made of the those who deserve our assistance and the aka the quotunderclassquot those who don t work and therefore have lower claims on receiving assistance Many families shift in and out of this stratification throughout their history Why is the US so unequal There is a huge amount of disproportionate distribution of wealth even more than Americans think there is The amounts of distribution they would like to see was more far off than any developed country in the entire world 1 of America has 40 ofthe American wealth The bottom 80 only make 7 of America s wealth The poorest of the poor have negative wealth Why is inequality increasing middleincome jobs are outsourced automated New jobs added at the bottom and the top but more at the bottom jobs are being outsourced the companies are unionbusting the sectoral change of growth of new industries that are lesslikely to unionize and incomes have shifted upward within the firms and away from the workers Deunionization has contributed to nearly 13 of the inequality growth since the 19705 deregulation and growth of financial services sector huge incomes at top favoring the wealthy with a huge reduction in top marginal rates How much is functional Moderate economic inequality CAN be functional it provide incentives and rewards talent and initiative Extreme economic inequality however can be highly dysfunctional Common arguments about why growing US inequality might NOT be dysfunctional Yes the top 1 have a huge growth in income but they pay the most taxes too and too much Are we undertaxed Federal revenue from taxes is at an alltime low so no Also the top 20 share nearly 60 of US income but only about 65 of all taxes that get paid each group pays about us much of tax as they have the income including the poor Corporate tax has also largely declined while the payroll tax has largely increased Also the top 1 avoid taxes by stashing money on nontaxed islands lowering your salary but take income as dividends make donations that you can writeoff set up a church set up non profit leagues change inheritance methods and make sure you have a good accountant to help you make sure this happens We have lots too many social programs to compensate for inequality The amount of social program spending hasn t changed since nearly 1980 to counteract the new inequality in economic growth and wealth After the government transfers money the US still has the most inequality in terms of income inequality when compared to other world countries nequaity isn t a problem as long as we have healthy rates of social mobility the extent to which people are able to move up or down in the income distribution during their lives the extent to which people end up on different points in the income distribution from their parents Currently the probability of changing from the top 40 to the bottom 40 or vice versa is only about 4 meaning most people don t change social class The advantage of wealth in college the lowincome college student with top math scores has the same chance 41 of graduating with a bachelor s degree as a rich student with mediocre scores Lowincome students are more likely to work during school lower their aspirations during college etc 4 Arguments suggesting that current inequality is dysfunctional 1 Slower economic growth stagnating incomes of the bottom 90 is a drag on consumption growth People rely more heavily on debt and borrowing But if you look at Sweden they have lower inequality but still struggle with this same issue HOWEVER if the growth rates are linked via the global economy smaller countries may be more dependent on the growth of larger countries like the US 2 Economic destabilization Top 1 share most income but have trouble spending it They make risky speculation while trying to make even more money and leads to economic collapse Making a more equal economy will make a more stable economy 3 It corrupts politics and institutions increased political responsiveness to interests of the interests of the rich rather than the ordinary people Criminality at the top often goes unpunished see Inside Job See video RepresentUS about the support from the Americans and the likelihood of it becoming law quot30 4 Economic inequality ultimately undermines capitalism itself it snuffs out competition market discipline and incentives Capitalism is based on the idea of taking entrpreunural risks US is in danger of becoming a corrupt financial oligarchy The corporations are winning when they win and their losses are socialized quotHeads I win tails you lose Aka looting Evaluative ranking of people Many criteria used money education race etc nfuences interactions mate selection political beliefs etc Define a status group by differences in group and some ranking on some criteria Not status groups blue eyes v brown eyes red shirt v yellow shirt Status group raceethnic group education groups Lexus owner v Nissan versa owner These groups are easily taught and learned Global Inequality the rise in the trade of goods and services across national boundaries and the increased mobility of multinational businesses and migrant laborers Development is believed to have occurred first in Europe because of the differences between the tropical and temperate zones Tropical zones have different lengths of growing seasons higher variability in the water supplies types of crops that are viable a lack of coal deposits and suffer from more disease because of the warmer climates Geographic limitations can affect ability to revolutionize eg African region s geographyjust isn t good for agricultural revolution because it s so hard to irrigate Social institutions also influence economic development of a civilization Some scholars say a strong foundation of property rights incorruptible judges and having laws in place generally can predict economic development The Europeans who transferred to live in the colonies helped spur the development of those places because they had a foundation already Others argue that the types of relationships between the home countries and the colonized regions determined their fate Eg Britain helped India in their government 9 more developed India when they were independent BUT Britain does not intervene in government in African country lack of development in that country Social Reproduction v Social Mobility the movement between positions within a system of social stratification social mobility a group or individual transitioning from one social status to one that is more or less the same as before eg secretary changes firms but still has same occupation social mobility a group or individual that rises ascends or falls descends from one social stratum to another eg promotion from floor cashier to regional manager ascending individual movement showing the jobs of the fathers vs the jobs of the sons shows that many children do similar or the same jobs as their parents mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy eg decline in farming leads to the children of farmers searching for otherjobs if we hold fixed the changing distributions ofjobs individuals trade jobs not on a onetoone way but it will still balance out in the end Meaning that if we don t change the job market individuals will still exchange jobs just not evenly some too far ascending other too far descending but it will balance out in terms of shared wealth and opportunity in the end ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and education and seeks to attribute characteristics of the people who end up in more desirable jobs Allows sociologists to study the intervening process that influence occupations such as education other jobs IQ etc INet worth and parental education best predict children s educational and other outcomes ClassBased Affirmative Action increasing selections of a minority group to make up for past mistreatment is calling for action to even out the playing field for students that don t or may not have as many opportunities to succeed as others 1967 the American Occupational Structure no matter what the occupation of the father of a black man the man was most likely to end up in the lower manual sector of the labor market family background mattered little in predicting who emerged into the small black professional class used to describe the dynamic of random groups of blacks emerging into professionals rather than lower manual laborers By mid1970s parents class background was more of a predictor of economic success for whites as well as minorities showing that discriminations as an explanation for racial inequality in terms of economic and social statuses has declined
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