History 105: Exam 3 materials.
History 105: Exam 3 materials. 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Rusnak on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
3/19/16: The Home Front Wartime Experiences: The Home Front ***test question*** Facets of total war: o (1) Sample government posters addressed to civilians. Encouraged citizens to buy war bonds. You were helping raise money to help prosecute the war. Played an active role in the war. Conserving resources. Keep up the moral of the citizens. Relevant to women working. Working in munitions. o (2) Women’s war work. Women’s work in munitions in Britain. Many aspects of this work was dangerous. Nearly 1 million women were employed in this essential war work. o Employed with filling shells with explosives. TNT poisoning. o Young women had the opportunity to make wages more than they had before the war. o By the end of the war, women munitions workers were earning, on average, 3x the wage of a woman would have earned in a factory before the war. Some as high as 10x. o New innovations. New welfare measures introduces into munition factories: Cafeterias which led to an improvement in the dies of workingclass women. o In prewar workingclass families in the male breadwinner was typically the one who ate the meat in the family. 3/19/16: The Home Front o Now workingclass women could eat meat in the cafeteria. Nurseries, on a small scale, and the government paid 75% of the cost. o (3) The Food Situation in Germany. Common experience for civilians. Civilians in Germany had the worst experience. Allies set up a naval blockade against Germany and Austria. 1914 through 1919. Affected the trade and import of food to Germany. January 1915. Food rationing began with the rationing of bread. o 5 lbs. of ‘war bread’ a over the course of the war. o Mid 1916: War bread reduced to 2 lbs. a week. Other foods were rationed. o A Munich folksinger sang about the alternative meats that German people consumed during the war. “Squirrels, weasels, martens We did kill, and dog and cat, Fox and mole and jay and crow: Safe weren’t even mice and rats.” o Other foods: Meat. Sugar. Fats. Potatoes. o The ration system put them on a substantial diet. o Situation in 1918 (handout). By 1918, the average German civilian was consuming 1,000 calories a day. Some had only consumed 700800 calories a day. Weather conditions in the fall of 1916 destroyed almost ½ of the potato crop. o People relied very heavily on the potato for their ration and diet. o The winter of 1916/1917. Became known as ‘Turnip Winter’. Consumption of alternative meats (handout). o ‘Ersatz’. 11,000 substitutes of food to replace those foods that had vanished. An ‘ersatz’ breakfast (handout). 3/19/16: The Home Front WAR BREAD with sawdust as a filler. Soda water mixed with cornstarch constituted BUTTER. A yellow indeterminate origin was sold as DRIED EGG. Ash containing 85% of a product was sold as PEPPER. SAUSAGE was made from an offal or perhaps dog meat mixed with turnips. o Animal intestines, brains, and heart. o Meatless sausage was also created. Ersatz COFFEE included coffee made from bark or turnip. o The impact of the dire food situation on the health of German civilians. By the end of the war, nearly ¾ of a million German civilians had died as a result of the wartime food storages. Adversely affected the health of the civilians. Malnutrition. Starvation.
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