Crim C113 - Week 1 notes
Crim C113 - Week 1 notes Crm/Law C113
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edward Avakian on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crm/Law C113 at University of California - Irvine taught by Hillary Berk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Gender and Social Control in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Crim C113 Lecture 2 Week 1 03/30/2016 ▯ Sex, Gender, and Inequality: a socio-legal primer ▯ ▯ This Sunday = first discussion post Post has to reference to at least one reading; doesn’t have to be long (quality > quantity) ▯ ▯ Difference between “sex” and “gender” Sex = biological or anatomical “apparatus” – physical traits, sex organs, chromosomes, chemicals/hormones (male/female) Gender = cultural meanings attached to those differences (masculinity/femininity) ▯ ▯ “Gender is a matter of culture” Gender refers to the social classification masculine vs feminine and the characteristics that are affiliated with those categories. Tasks that are either of the two vary considerably to the society that is being studied EX) Beliefs about women’s delicate nature (covered and protected, etc) kept them from playing sports; in our culture, people like Serena Williams or other female athletes—they are biologically capable of strength and endurance EX) Socially constructed beliefs about men not being suitable parents or not being primary parents of children == deprived fathers of having sole or joint custody; fathers are capable of raising healthy children ▯ According to Michael Kimmel, what are two ways that we can explain gender difference and gender inequality? Nature vs nurture “From the moment of birth, males and females are treated differently. Gradually we acquire the traits, behaviors, and attitudes that our culture defines as ‘masculine’ or ‘feminine.’ We are not necessarily born different. We become different through this process of socialization” (Kimmel, p. 4). ▯ ▯ “Doing Gender” West and Zimmerman Gender is performed From a law and society perspective, gender is less a component of identity or a fixed state, something that is constant (I am a woman, I am a man), but it is something that is performed Gender isn’t something one is, it is something that one does through interactions with others We enact the traits prescribed for us (sex roles) We are “sorted” into distinct institutional and social arrangements that naturalize differences based on sex (EX: males with visible genitalia will be classified into one area, females into another) Primary sex characteristics that are present at birth can be deceiving (genitalia) Secondary sex characteristics = hair, voice, growth, hormones (generally perceivable during puberty) The presentation of self = how someone dresses, moves, talks signals to other people as to how they see themselves as male, female, androgynous, or something of the like There is a range of female to maleness = female have androgens, male have estrogen Intersex individuals aka hermaphrodites = interrogates the assumption that genitalia should be a determining factor in gender identity Gender = all the differences between men and women whether they’re individual differences, societal roles, or cultural representations ▯ Is gender inequality the inevitable product of gender differences? Michael Kimmel states that “gender difference is the product of gender inequality*, the outcome of domination, and legitimated through the dichotomy male/female” o *i.e., gender inequality is not the product of “difference” Gender is an important form of identity ▯ ▯ Gender stereotypes Men are more aggressive Females are more passive Females are more vulnerable than men Sexual promiscuity is deemed different among men and women ▯ ▯ “Essentialism” “Men” and “women” are not a homogenous, fixed group with common characteristics o Some men are more emotional than women o Some women have a more prestigious job than men Ignores other hierarchies and forms of oppression Privilege and subordination o Focused on working class women, women with color, poor, lesbian, etc. ▯ ▯ Why are generalizations vital? (Zinn) How can you create social change if all individuals are totally unique and different? Empirical data provides evidence of patterns of inequality based on gender Carefully ask: Which women? Which men? Creating categories is politically important ▯ ▯ The invisibility of masculinity promotes the illusion of gender neutrality and objectivity – How? (Kimmel) Invisibility of masculinity = gender criteria are held up as the norm but they appear to be neutral Illusion of neutrality = men can … Genderless jobholder = how men and women behave has to do with the structure of organizations Mommy track = phenomenon that women who graduate from law school but to become successful are measured by standards held by men (i.e. glass ceiling); women are much more likely to have part time work if they choose to be parents and not full-time work ▯ ▯ Gender is not a matter of two opposite categories of people; it is also a range of social relations ▯ ▯ How is gender “relational”? Gender inequality results from people’s use of sex (male/female) and gender (expectations associated with male/female) together as a primary frame for organizing their relations with others… embedded assumptions are carried out through social relationships – Cecilia Ridgeway ▯ ▯ Progress is not parity – Deborah Rhode The fact that women are entering occupations once reserved for men is taken as evidence that the gender “problem” has been solved The perception that some progress = resolution is itself a problem ▯ ▯ On every major measure of wealth, power, and status, women are still significantly worse off than men 86% of corporate executives are male (CNN – Fortune 500 2015) Congress is 80% male, 80% white, and 92% Christian (Washington Post 2015) Sexual violence against women is stable and pervasive (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence) ▯ ▯ Why did gender equality stall according to Coontz? Structural impediments prevent people from acting on their egalitarian values Women are men are forced into accommodations and into fallback positions Values stretch ▯ ▯ Crim C113 Lecture 1 Week 1 03/28/2016 ▯ Crim C113: Gender and Social Control ▯ ▯ Professor Berk ▯ email@example.com ▯ Office 2363 SE II ▯ Office hours: Wednesdays 1-3pm, or by appointment ▯ ▯ Feminism/Feminist Values: social justice, equality No single, unitary perspective Acknowledges troubled past as a white woman’s movement Feminism is simply the idea that women and men should have equal political, economic, and social rights Theory and practice of social justice/empowerment ▯ ▯ Relationship between Gender, Law & Society Interdisciplinary approach Legal status of women in the US Sexual orientation and the construction of masculinity Individuals have multiple and intersectional identities Gender as shared experience Fundamental rights, statutes, core concepts o Privacy, autonomy, consent, etc. Central goal: complete class knowing the basics Understand how to do a legal analysis through the lens of gender studies Scholarly and critical analysis, data, news ▯ ▯ Key Questions Is everyone equal under the law, or does the law provide more resources to some more than to others? In which contexts, and for whom? Why? How and when is law a vehicle for social change and justice? o Does law cause social change? How does it maintain gender inequality through systems of power? What happens when fundamental rights are in conflict? o Ex) Hobby Lobby case, right to provide contraception to employees Why is race equality treated differently than gender equality? Overall, what is the difference between the law “on the books” and in practice when it comes to gender? ▯ ▯ Assessment Short Essay / Discussion Memo (4-5 pages) = 20% Midterm Exam = 25% Final Exam = 35% Participation and Attendance = 20% o In-class presence and participation o Reading reflections discussion forum Https://canvas.eee.uci.edu/courses/1575 ▯ ▯ Extra credit opportunities (only need one to get the credit) Group film screenings Independently attended, pre-approved program + reaction paper ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Levit Verchick Notes 03/28/2016 ▯ Pages 1-2 ▯ ▯ Feminism and Law: What is feminism? It’s the idea that women and men should have equal political, economic, and social rights For some, feminism suggests that many dramatic examples of women organizing for justice or thwarting social convention Modern heroes: o Catharine MacKinnon, who reshaped the law of sexual harassment to help workers avoid unwanted sexual advances and belittlement o Oprah Winfrey, the first woman to launch her own television network, reaching out to confront issues, such as domestic violence, previously unaddressed on television o Tina Fey, dubbed the “involuntary heroine” of feminism, for writing her character “Liz Lemon” for NBC’s 30 Rock For others, feminism is not an isolated movement but one that by necessity is intersectional and multifaceted Feminism is an extremely powerful political and social force It is also an influential legal force At its roots, feminism is about equal rights ▯ ▯ A Brief history of women’s rights and early concepts of equality Some of the earliest arguments for equal legal treatment include the rights to vote, make contracts, and own property The battle for suffrage saw women speaking in public for the first time in American history Early strategies for women’s suffrage were tied to the abolitionist movement and racial enfranchisement Declaration of Sentiments was a manifesto modeled after the Declaration of Independence by a group of three hundred or so women and men who gathered in Seneca Falls, New York o This listed “injuries and usurpations . . . on the part of man toward woman” o Claimed women’s natural rights to equality in political, religious, social, and public spheres, including the right to vote o Most radical and controversial provision of the Declaration: demand for women’s suffrage The Seneca Falls Convention = beginning of the first wave of the women’s rights movement ▯ ▯