Week 10/8 Lecture Notes
Week 10/8 Lecture Notes ANTHROP 3300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 3300 at Ohio State University taught by Debra Guatelli-Steinberg in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Primate Evolution Part 4 Mid to Late Miocene 175MYA Eurasian Hominoid Radiation land bridge between Africa and Eurasia opened up during this time Dryopithecus 148mya in Europe 0 chimpsized brain 0 Brachiator long fingers and long arms Oranopithecus Greek Ape 107mya 0 thick enameled form 0 quotgorilla like face Gigantopithecus 75mya in India and China 0 huge jaws teeth 0 possibly a bamboo eater No more hominoids in Europe at end of Miocene During this time the climate changed woodlands receding and spread of first grasslands in Europe Summary of Trends for MidLate Miocene woodlands grasslands spread some suspensorybrachiating species species with thick enamel robust jaws o anticipates early hominins End of MidLate Miocene Bipedalism What did it evolve from Anatomy of Bipedalism History of Discovery The earliest possible bipeds What did bipedalism evolve from One idea ancestors were arboreal vertical climbing or suspensory and then became bipedal Another idea were arboreal but went through a phase of knuckle walking then became bipedal Human Bipedalism Striding strides with different phases stance toeoff swing heelstrike 0 only one leg supporting you most of the time 0 need many adaptations to make it work Obligate primary way of locomotion Bipedal Anatomy The skull 0 location of foramen magnum under the skull centrally located 0 head balanced on top of the spine The Spine 0 center of gravity balance point is in the hip joint of humans standing chimps COG far forward of hip joint humans lumbar curve shifts hips forward thoracic curve brings head of COG o apes have 3 lumbar vertebrate whereas humans have 5 Pelvis o pubis illium ischium relative to apes human ilia shorter broader and wrap around shortening of ilium bring COG closer to the hip joint broadening and wrapping of ilia maintaining stability gluteus medius and minimus maintain lateral stability 0 gluteus maximus prevents the body from pitching forward when walking Legs 0 long heavy legs 0 femur has a valgus angle goes away from the body keeps feet underneath the pelvis 0 locking knees allows full extension of the knee when walking without having a lot of muscle involvement making it energy efficient The foot 0 convergentadducted big toe o enlarged calcaneusheel bone 0 metatarsalsbones of big toe are very robust o arched feet plantar fascia maintains the arch shock absorption propulsion Burdens of Bipedalism back pain because of holding up the body pregnancy got harder because of bipedalism o humans have big heads that must get through a small pelvis 0 female pelvis is a compromise big enough to get head through but still small enough to maintain efficient bipedalism History of Discovery Dart 1924 Taung child in South Africa 0 australopithecus africanus o bipedalism is the defining feature of hominins because it came first 1930s and 40s Robert Broom o gracile and robust forms of australopithecus africanus found in South Africa 0 Spine and pelvis screamed bipedalism 1959 Mary and Louis Leakey found homini in Olduvai Gorge in East African Rift Valley 0 Africa 2mya o Nutcracker man 0 giant teeth OOOO 1974 Donald Johanson discovered Lucy O 0 Ethiopia 32mya A afarensis then another find to 39mya Earliest Possible Bipeds Sahelanthropus tchadensis o faunal dating 67mya o reconstructed cranium could make it questionable skeptical 0 think the foramen magnum is facing down 0 cranial capacity 380cc very small brain 0 small canines 0 environment wooded Orrorin tugenensis 0 000000 millenium man 6mya basalt dated using Ar Ar very precise Kenya s Tugen Hills femur some teeth mandible bit forested environment curved finger bones femur obturator externus groove created by muscle attachment distribution of bone in femoral neck looks similar to hominin
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