Ch 11 Book Notes
Ch 11 Book Notes CLAS 2205
Popular in Sports and Spectacles the Ancient World
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Popular in Classical Studies
CLAS 1101 - 010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 2205 at Ohio State University taught by Professor Lipp in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Sports and Spectacles the Ancient World in Classical Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Ch 11 Female and Greek Sport Greek female sport was never as prominent as male sport female sport typically involved unmarried women and girls 0 rituals of transition or initiation Sparta female physical education premarital o contests and processions girls competed with boys women were banned from attending the Olympics Ptolemaic kings changed the role of women in sport by encouraging female contests o as well women became prominent victors in equestrian events female sporting opportunities increased during the Roman period The Ancient Evidence Problems and Perspectives all evidence produced by males and reflects their perceptions usually females participated in dancing and singing rituals that weren t very athletic evidence includes vase paintings limited in number 0 depict females involved in sport inscriptions of female victors in athletic festivals in Roman times Early Greece Epic and Myth female recreation during Bronze Age dancing acrobatics and ball games women only mentioned in Homer s funeral games as prizes objectified Greek myth Atalanta was an athletic female who broke gender norms o raised in the wild by hunters became a great runner and hunter devoted to Artemis scenes were produced with erotic overtones for males raced against suitors for her hand one tricked her by dropping golden apples which she stopped to pick up a nonconforming female is defeated and tamed by a male she then chooses to have her soul reborn as a male athlete in order to win the great honors and awards which she couldn t as a female Spartan Female Sport female physical education exercises dancing running purpose to produce beautiful fit and well socialized brides and mothers who would produce healthy future citizen soldiers needed for Sparta outsiders depicted Spartan women as assertive and independent 0 but Spartan female sport ended with marriage Athenian Girls Races and Rites athenian girls were socially conditioned for their domestic role had toys and pets but few other recreational outlets and they married early before marriage some girls participated in rites called Arkteia 0 took place away from the city at sanctuaries o ritual chase in honor of Artemis and the myth that a girl had caused the death of a sacred bear OOOOO o explained as an initiation rite where girls fled from society and were pursued and tamed before returning to society a ritual to recognize the girls as female citizens who are ready to be married and raise sons 0 performed in a secluded all female environment The Heraia at Olympia every fourth year to honor Hera young girls ran footraces in their age categories at Olympia 16 women from the Elis region supervised the races winners received olive wreaths a portion of the meat from the sacrifice and permission to dedicate inscribed icons races were 16 shorter than that of male races extremely prestigious prenuptial initiation rite hypothesized took place just before the men s games so that men could spectate and fathers could bring their daughters and the maidens lingered with their fathers and watched nude male athletes to meet suitors 0 seems unlikely though men went to the games for a homosocial environment not to look after the safety of their virgin daughters 0 and female rites and rituals were usually secluded and segregated The Olympic Ban on Women females could watch athletic festivals at most sites in Greece but not at Olympia any woman caught breaking the ban was to be killed by being thrown from a height only women allowed were the priestesses of Dmeter Chamyne who sat on the altar myth a mother once dresses as a man to take her son to compete at Olympia and watch him but when he won she jumped the fence and exposed herself not punished out of respect for the family s athletic achievements Hellenistic Females and Competition in places like the Near Eastern and Egypt women had better status and rights than in Greece this period brought more female involvement in education and public life and more highprofile female equestrian competition Ptolemies power Macedonian Greek family that came to power in Egypt 0 adapted to culture of Great Royal Wives and allowed and encourages royal female initiative and political involvement 0 both female and male members of the family won equestrian events at Olympia 0 daughters were proud to win at Olympia and continue the line of female victors in their family later on in the period women sponsored gymnasiums and produced games and indirectly involved in the educational systems of gymnasia Female Athletics in the Roman Empire female participation and spectatorship became more pubic within Rome s performance culture females attended the circus and amphitheater use the baths and female gladiators fought Greek female contests increased under the Empire Augustus had reservations about women watching nude male sport but supported Greek sport JulioClaudian expanded festivals with female events to honor women of the imperial household most contests and races still for maidens and girls Nero invited Vestal Virgins not just the priestess to watch the athletic contests at Rome 0 he also imported female wrestlers and shocked the audience who watched a Roman senator wrestle a female Spartan 181 CE under vow of chastity maidens from elite families competed in running and wrestling at Olympian games Bikini Girls so named because of their brief attire appear to be practicing or competing in games such as running jumping with weights and tossing a ball and some wear crowns symbolic of victory
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