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Psychological Science Notes

by: Morgan Peterson

Psychological Science Notes PSYCH 150A

Marketplace > Psychlogy > PSYCH 150A > Psychological Science Notes
Morgan Peterson
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Dr. Feldman

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Last weeks notes for psychology 150A. I pretty much type what Dr. Feldman says as she goes! Hope these notes can help!
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Dr. Feldman
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Peterson on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 150A at a university taught by Dr. Feldman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Psychological Science What is Science 0 Science is NOT defined by any particular subject matter tool or apparatus 0 Science IS a way of asking questions and finding answers 0 Science IS a wa of thinking about the world which is governed by certain characteristics or principles Characteristics of Science 0 Systematic Empiricism o Contrasts with casual observation 0 Clever Hans example 1907 Berlin 0 Hans would go around to different cities and he could guess people s weight He s a horse 0 Couldn t actually count but he was trained based off the reactions of people around him 0 Public Knowledge 0 Replication o Unbiased objective 0 Testable Problems 0 AKA falsifiable o If Freud concludes you hate your sister and you say nah fam then you re in denial Freud s theories cannot be falsified so its not a testable problem 0 Another non testable problem is the meaning of life 0 Set of Attitudes o Skepticism I need to see it to believe it o Curiosity Steps in the Scientific Method The Research Process 0 Theory Daily Experiences Commonly Held Beliefs gt Hypothesis or Research Question gt Evidence Observations gt Drawing Conclusions gt Theory Construction or Modification gt New Research Questions OR hypothesis 0 Theory 0 An explanation that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events 0 Definition 0 The role of theory in research process 0 Characteristics of a good theory 0 Testable falsifiable and generates new predictions 0 Organizes known facts 0 Supported by there findings of new research 0 Parsimonious simple Hypothesis 0 A testable prediction about the relationship between two or more variables 0 The difference between a theory and a hypothesis 0 Theory Explanation about why things happen the way they do 0 Ex Schizophrenia is genetically determined 0 Hypothesis A prediction based on that explanation 0 Ex There will be a greater incidence of schizophrenia between identical twins than between fraternal twins 0 Evidence Observations o The Bystander Effect Darley and Latane 1968 o Read about Genovese Murder 0 Research Question When do people help 0 Theory When people know or think that others are present in a situation they allow their sense of responsibility for action to diffuse among those present 0 Hypothesis Increasing the number of bystanders will suppress helping in a laboratory emergency 0 Evidence observations manipulated of bystanders in laboratory emergency 0 Drawing conclusions 0 Results Confirmed hypothesis 0 Theory construction or modification 0 New research questions or hypothesis 0 Goals of the Scientific Method 0 Description 0 Methods of observation 0 Naturalistic Observation 0 Observation of animals or people etc in their natural setting 0 Ex Jane Goodall and monkeys Laboratory Observation 0 Bring people into the lab and observe them so the people know they re being observed Participant Observation 0 The person observing is also participating ex Undercover police Case Study 0 HM o Phineas Gage Survey Research 0 Distribute some kind of questionnaire or survey and give it to a lot of people an get results 0 1994 Mass Survey Sexual Habits of Americans 0 Prediction 0 Correlation o Explanation causation o Experimentation O O O O Bias sources of bias in Experimental Research 0 Selection Bias 0 How to Avoid 0 Random Assignment 0 Placebo Effect 0 How to avoid 0 Use placebo 0 Demand Characteristics Guessing the hypothesis and acting differently as a result 0 How to avoid 0 Use cover studies deception o Experimenter Bias 0 How to avoid o Naive vs Blind Experimenters Protecting Participants in Research 0 What is ethical research 0 Types of threats enduring stress and other stuff after results of tests 0 The potential lasting impact ex telling straight dudes they re gay af 0 Provide freedom of choice 0 Outside of the laboratory 0 Securing informed consent 0 Foreseeable risk 0 Procedures 0 Duration 0 Benefits 0 Alternative treatments 0 Whom to contact 0 Voluntary participation 0 Maintaining awareness of power differentials o Avoiding abuses of power 0 Respecting participant s privacy 0 Confidentiality o Honestly describing the nature and use of the research 0 Description 0 When is it necessary 0 Alternative to deception 0 Consequences of deception o Debriefing 0 Using animals as research participants 0 APA ethical principles 0 Justification 0 Animal Review Boards Ensuring that research is ethical 0 Institutional review board a Researcher s own ethics


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