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S 100 - 006
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessika Francis on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to S 316 - 001 at Ball State University taught by Michael John Tagler (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Social Psychology Jessika Francis Chapter 5 Notes 51 What is the selfconcept and how does it develop The origins and Nature of the SelfConcept Studies show great apes have rudimentary sense of self because they pass the mirror selfrecognition test and lesser apes don t Humans develop selfrecognition when they reach 1824 months ofage As people get older past adolescence their selfconcept develops fully Self Concept is the overall set of beliefs that people have about their personal attributions Morality is central Cultural Differences on the SelfConcept People who grow up in Western cultures tend to have an independent view of self 0 People who grow up in Asian cultures tend to have an interdependent view of self Functions of the Self The self serves four functions 0 Selfknowledge o Selfcontrol o Impression management 0 Selfesteem 52 To what extent do people know themselves through introspection and what are the consequences of introspection Knowing ourselves through introspection 0 Looking inward to examine the quotinside informationquot we have about our thoughts feelings and motives Focusing on the Self SelfAwareness Theory 0 When people focus on themselves they evaluate and compare their current behavior to their internal standards and values Judging Why We Feel the Way We Do Telling More Than We Can Know 0 When people introspect about why they feel the way they do they often use causal theories many of which are learned from one s culture The Consequences of lntrospecting About Reasons 0 When people think about the reasons for their attitudes they assume that their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize leading to reasonsgenerated attitude change 53 In what ways do people come to know themselves by observing their behavior Knowing Ourselves by Observing Our Own Behavior 0 People also gain selfknowledge by observing their own behavior Selfperception theory argues that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states by observing our own behavior and the situation in which it occurs Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation An overjusti cation effect Occurs when people focus on the extrinsic reasons for their behavior and underestimate their intrinsic reasons Mindsets and Motivation 0 Some people have a xed mindset about their abilities which is the idea that they have a set amount of the ability that cannot change 0 Setbacks cause them to give up 0 Others have a growth mindset which is the idea that their abilities are malleable qualities that they can cultivate and grow 0 Setbacks are seen as room for growth Understanding Our Emotions The TwoFactor Theory of Emotion Experience arousal Seek an appropriate explanation Finding the Wrong Cause Misattribution of Arousal Sometime people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to be aroused 54 In what ways do people use others to know themselves Using other people to know ourselves Our selfconcepts are shaped by the people around us Knowing ourselves by comparing ourselves to others 0 According to social comparison theory we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people Knowing ourselves by adopting other people s views 0 In addition people tend to automatically adopt the attitudes of those they like and want to interact with Knowing our future feelings by consulting other people 0 When making affective forecast which are people s predictions about how they will feel in response to a future emotional event it is useful to know how other people react to that event 55 When are people likely to succeed at selfcontrol and when are they likely to fail SelfControl The executive function of the self 0 Exerting energy on one task limits people s ability to exert self control on a subsequent task 0 Simply believing that wipower is an unlimited resource can help people exert more selfcontrol as can praying in advance of a task and forming implementation 56 How do people portray themselves so that others will see them as they want to be seen Impression Management All the world s a stage 0 People try to get others to see them as they want to be seen 0 Impressions management strategies 0 One is ingratiationusing attery or praise to make yourself likable to another often a person of higher status 0 Another is selfhandicapping whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task they can avoid blaming themselves 0 Culture Impression Management and SelfEnhancement o The desire to manage the image we present to others is strong in all cultures although the kinds of images we want to present depend on the culture in which we live 57 What are the pros and cons of having high selfesteem SelfEsteem How We Feel About Ourselves 0 High selfesteem has the bene ts of avoiding depression allowing us to persevere in the face of failure and as shown by research on terror management theory protecting us from thoughts about our own mortality 0 Narcissism is a form of high selfesteem that is problematic High selfregard combined with a lack of empathy toward others
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