Ch. 6 Notes
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S 100 - 006
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessika Francis on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to S 316 - 001 at Ball State University taught by Michael John Tagler (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Social Psychology Jessika Francis Chapter 6 Notes 61 What is cognitive dissonance and how do people avoid dissonance to maintain a positive selfimage Cognitive dissonance Unpleasant feelings we get when two ideas clash with each other or behave in ways different to their beliefs Three ways to reduce dissonance 1 Change behavior to t with dissonant cognition your belief 2 Attempt to justify our behavior through changing one of the dissonant cognitions Researchers studied the behavior and attitudes of heavy smokers who relapsed They discovered that heavy smokers who try to quit and fail managed to lower their perception of the dangers of smoking 3 Attempting to justify our behavior by adding new cognitions 0 Self af rmation focusing on one or more of hisher good qualities to lessen the dissonance sting Human thinking is not rational it is rationalZing People agree with the plausible arguments agreeing with their own position and the implausible arguments agreeing with the opposing position The process of reducing dissonance is largely unconscious When people think about how they will react to future negative events they show an impact bias They overestimate the intensity and duration of their negative emotional reactions Dissonance and the SelfConcept Dissonance is most painful and we are most motivated to reduce it when one of those cognitions is about the self when our selfconcept or selfesteem is threatened by the cognition that we have done something that violates our view of ourselves People with high selfesteem experiences the greatest dissonance after doing something cruel or foolish People with a low selfesteem don t feel as much dissonance because their cognition about their actions is consonant with their opinion about themselves Psychopaths are fairly immune from dissonance quotDon t be a cheaterquot vs quotDon t cheatquot When children with low selfesteem are given in ated praise it can back re Causing them to be discouraged from taking on new challenges because they fear they won t be able to met them To be effective selfaffirmation must be grounded in reality 62 How does cognitive dissonance operate in everyday life and what are some constructive ways of reducing it Selfjusti cation in everyday life 0 The justi cation of effort People tend to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain o Explains intense loyalty that initiated recruits feel for their fraternities and military institutions after undergoing hazing External versus Internal justi cation When we perform an action because of the ample external reward to do it then the action has little or no effect on our attitudes or beliefs 0 When reward is not big enough to justify the action we nd ourselves experiencing cognitive dissonance because there is little external justi cation for what we did This activates an internal justi cation process to justify the action to ourselves Counterattitudinal advocacy is when people publicly advocate something that is counter to what they believe or how they behave Punishment and selfpersuasion A way to get people to change is by administering insuf cient and mild punishment 0 Forbidden toy experiment 0 The less severe the threat or the smaller the reward o The less external justi cation the person has for compliance 0 The greater the need for internal justi cation Self persuasion becomes internalized and lasts longer than temporary obedience to avoid a punishment The hypocrisy Paradigm Hypocrisy induction 0 Method of making people face the difference between what they say and what they do 0 Takes advantage of the need to reduce dissonance to foster socially bene cial behaviors 0 AIDS prevention experimentgt reduce dissonance buy condoms Justifying good deed and harmful acts 0 Get someone to like you by getting them to do you a favor 0 That person needs to internally justify the fact that they did something nice for you Harm another person to reduce the threat to your selfimage that could come from doing a bad deed quotthey are not one of us H M anywayquot thinking quotThey deserved it victim is enemyquot etc Learning from our mistakes Dissonance reduction is counterproductive when it solidi es negative values and behaviors Knowing humans are dissonancereducing animals can make us more aware of the process
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