Chapter 4: Fiber Notes
Chapter 4: Fiber Notes Nutrition 344
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Notetaker on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 344 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Pribis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Energy Nutrients in Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 4 Fiber Definitions of Dietary Fiber and Functional Fiber 0 Dietary Fiber nondigestible CHO and lignin that are intact and intrinsic in plants 0 Functional Fiber nondigestible CHO that are isolated extracted or manufactured and known to have physiological bene ts Fiber and Plants 0 gt95 of bers from cell wall 0 Primary wall I A thin envelope that surrounds the contents of the growing cell I Contains cellulose but in smaller amounts and less organized 0 Secondary wall I Contains many strands of cellulose arranged in an orderly fashion within a matrix of non cellulosic polysaccharides 0 Fiber related components 0 Cellulose o Hemicellulose I Content of plants varies but can make up 2030 of the cell walls 0 Lignin I Deposits form in specialized cells whose function is to provide structural support to the plant I As the plant matures lignin spreads through the intracellular spaces penetrating the pectins o Pectins I Are found in the middle lamella which makes up the outer wall of the cell and functions as intercellular cement to unite the cell walls of adjacent cells I Continues dispersing through intracellular spaces but it also permeates the primary wall and then spreads into the developing secondary wall 0 Suberin I Made up of a variety of substances including phenolic cmpnds as well as long chain EtOHs and polymeric esters of fas I Enzyme and acid resistant I Also made of polymeric esters of fas I Is a water impermeable substance that is secreted onto the plant surface I Enzyme and acid resistant Characteristics of Dietary and Functional Fiber 0 Cellulose 0 Dietary and functional ber Long linear polymer of beta l4 linked glucose units Main component of plant cell walls Insoluble but can be chemically altered Sources bran legumes nuts peas root veggies cabbage fam outer covering of seeds apples OOOO 0 Used as a food thickening or texturing agent or to prevent leakage of liquid fond in breads cake mixes sauces sandwich spreads dips ozen meat products and fruit juice mixes Hemicellulose 0 Dietary ber 0 Heterogeneous grp of polysaccharide substances 0 Sugars in backbone and side chains I Xylose mannose galactose backbone I Arabinose glucuronic acid galactose side chains 0 Because of the backbone and side chains hemicellulose can be soluble insoluble or fermented 0 Sources bran whole grains nuts legumes some veggies and fruits Pectins 0 Dietary and functional ber 0 Backbone galacturonic acid 0 Cell wall and middle lamella in plants 0 Water soluble gel forming 0 Stable in foods that are highly acidic and have a low pH 0 Completely metabolized in lrg intestine where colonized bacteria like it 0 Sources apples strawberries citrus uits legumes nuts and some veggies o Added to jellies and jams to promote gelling 0 Also added to fruit juices fruit rollups and icing or frosting Lignin 0 Dietary and functional ber 0 Highly branched polymer composed of phenol units wstrong bonding o Insoluble in water has hydrophobic binding capacity and is generally poorly fermented by colonic bacteria 0 Structural components of plants found in stems seeds bran layer 0 Sources wheat mature root veggies fruits wedible seeds Gums Hydrocolloids 0 Dietary and functional bers 0 Grp of substances secreted at site of plant injury I Tree exudates gum Arabic gum karaya gum ghatti I Shrub exudate gum tragacanth o Composed of sugars and derivates 0 Used as a thickening agent and gelling agent 0 Sources oatmeal barley legumes Beta Glucans 000 0 Dietary and functional bers Homopolymers of glucopyranose units Water soluble highly fermentable Sources cereal brans especially oats and barely Fructans Inulin Oligofructose and Fructooligosaccharides 0 Dietary ber 0 Fructose units in chains varying length 0 Prebiotics actually feed the bacteria that grow in the lrg intestine 0 Sources chicory asparagus onions garlic artichokes tomatoes bananas o Inulin can be used to replace fat in llings dressings or frozen desserts Resistant Starch 0 Starch that cannot be digested or absorbed by humans I RS1 plant cell walls I RS2 ungelatinized starch granules I RS3 retrograde starch from cooking and cooling or extruding foods I RS4 chemically modi ed starch o RS1 and RS2 dietary bers RS3 and RS4 functional bers 0 Consumption of up to 20 gday recommended to obtain health bene ts 0 Sources legumes raw potatoes bananas Chitin and Chitosan o Chitin I Amino polysaccharide polymer containing beta 14 linked glucose units I Cell wall of some lower plants I Insoluble o Chitosan I Deacetylated inactivated form of chitin I Polysaccharide made of glucosamine and Nacetyl glucosamine Polydextrose and Polyols o Polydextrose I Polysaccharide of glucose and sorbitol units that have been polymerized at high temps and partial vacuum I Used as a bulking agent or sugar substitute 0 Polyols I Polyglycitol and malitol I Found in syrups Psyllium 0 Functional ber 0 Mucilage om husk of psyllium seeds 0 High water binding capacity and provides viscosity 0 Used as laxative I Must ingest plenty of uids I If health claim is made label must state to ingest uid to prevent choking or if individual has problems swallowing Resistant Dextrins o Resistant maltodextrins 0 Functional bers 0 Generated by treating cornstarch with heat and acid and then with amylase o Glucose polymers containing alpha 14 and alpha 16 glucosidic bonds and alpha 12 and alpha 1 3 bonds Selected Properties and Physiological Effects of Fiber Important properties include o Solubility in water 0 Water holding capacity and viscosity 0 Adsorption or binding ability 0 DegradabilityFermentability Solubility in Water 0 Classi cations I Soluble dissolve in hot water I Insoluble doesn t dissolve in hot water Water soluble some hemicelluloses pectin gums beta glucans psyllium uctans and some resistant starches I Legumes oats barley carrots broccoli artichokes onions grapes berries Water insoluble cellulose lignin some hemicelluloses chitosan chitin I Whole grains nuts seeds veggies Soluble I Delay gastric emptying slows down digestion I Increase transit time I Decrease nutrient absorption Insoluble I Decreases transit time I Increases fecal bulk o WaterHolding Hydration Capacity and Viscosity O 0000 0000 Ability of ber to bind water Delayed slowed gastric emptying Reduced mixing of GI contents wdigestive enzymes Reduced enzyme function Decreased nutrient diffusion rate attenuation of the blood glucose response I Take a food with high glycemic response and add ber to it to change the structure Altered sm intestine transit time Water soluble have good water holding capacity such as pectins gums hemicelluloses Cellulose and lignin have lower water holding capacity Soluble bers bind several times their weight of water traps water that creates a viscous slow moving solution which traps nutrients and slows down digestion and absorption I Depends on pH soluble particles degree to which food was processed etc 0 Adsorption or Binding Ability O O O O Diminished absorption of lipids Increased fecal bile acid excretion Lowered serum cholesterol concentrations hypocholesterolemic properties I Eat 1224 grams of pectin or 930 guar gum 5 g psyllium 6 g beta glucan I Eat 610 servings of fruits and veggies or 23 servings of legumes barley Altered mineral carotenoid and phytochemical absorption 0 DegradabilityFermentability O Fermentable bers I Fermentable bers as prebiotics 0 Promote the growth of healthy bacteria 0 Sources peas beans lentils chickpeas o Stimulate the growth of lactobacilli and promote healthy lrg intestine colonization of bacteria I Short chain fa generation 0 Include primarily acetic butyric and propionic acids 0 Can be transformed to Coenzyme Acetyl CoA 0 Increased watersodium absorption in the colon o Mucosal cell differentiation and proliferation o Acidi cation of luminal environment 0 Provision of E 0 Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis 0 Improved colonic blood ow 0 Enhanced immune function 0 Increase in WBCs such as neutrophils and lymphocytes and macrophages 0 Trophic effects and prevention of abnml cell populations 0 Nonfermentable bers I Detoxi cation o Harmful carcinogen compounds can be attached or absorbed in ber detoxifying can help to not irritate the mucus of lrg intestine I Increased fecal volume bulk Fiber in Disease Prevention and Management 0 Lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular infectious and respiratory dz by 2456 in men and 34 59 in women 0 Cardiovascular Disease 0 Lower cholesterol and lower BP 0 Soluble and insoluble bene cial 0 Diabetes 0 Improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity 0 Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of soluble bers 0 However the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee as well as others consider the evidence for ver s effectiveness limited I Evidence for a link between fruit and veggie consumption and the development of T2DM is also considered limited and inconsistent o Obesity and Weight Control 0 Fiber rich foods have lower E density and higher volume which can promote satiety 0 May impact satiety including hormones I Glucagonlike peptide I I Ghrelin I Peptide YY o Indicative during gastric emptying 0 GI Disorders 0 Inadequate intake related to diverticular dz colon CA and constipation I Consume diet rich in insoluble ber I May not prevent formation of new diverticula 0 Limited evidence that berrich diet may reduce colon CA risk I People are more physically active are less likely to obtain colon CA 0 Proposed Mechanisms o Absorb bile acids promote excretion of cholesterol Decreases interluminal pH Increase fecal bulk Provide fermentable substrates for bacteria in colon Shortened fecal transit time Fermentation may release berbound calcium Butyric acid appears to hinder CA cells Insoluble bers bind carcinogens OOOOOOO Health Claims Food Labels and Recommended Intake 0 4 Allowable Claims 0 Low fat diets rich in bercontaining grain products fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk or some types of cancer a disease associated with many factors Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol and rich in fruits and vegetables and grain products that contain some types of dietary ber particularly soluble ber may reduce the risk of heart disease a disease associated with many factors Low fat diets rich in fruits and vegetables foods that are low in fat and may contain dietary ber vitamin A or Vitamin C may reduce the risk of some types of cancer a disease associated with many factors Beta glucan from oat bran containing at least 55 of beta glucan soluble ber rolled oats or oatmeal containing at least 4 of beta glucan soluble ber Whole oat our providing at least 4 of beta glucan soluble ber or psyllium husk with a purity of no less than 95 0 Fruits veggies or grain products 0 0 Low in fat and a good source of dietary ber Wo forti cation Low in fat saturated and total and cholesterol and contain at least 06 g of soluble ber per reference amount Wo forti cation 0 Fruits and veggies that are a good source of vitamin A or C or dietary ber 0 Nutrition Facts Panel 0 O O O 25 g of dietary ber for a 2000 kcal diet Has to be listed with total CHO sugars and other CHO An excellent source of ber is a serving of the food that provides at least 20 of recommendations that is 020 X 25 g or 5 g of ber A good source of ber if they provide 10 of recommendations or 25 g of ber per serving 0 Recommended Fiber Intake 0 O 0 Dietary guidelines I 14 g of ber per 1000 kcal intake Adequate Intakes established on amounts shown to protect against heart disease No TUL Tolerable Upper Intake established I gt 50 gday generally considered excessive
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