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Chapter 9: Gender

by: Grace Harmon

Chapter 9: Gender ISS 210

Grace Harmon
GPA 4.0
Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia

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Here are notes for Chapter 9: Gender, Enjoy!
Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Harmon on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
ISS 210 Chapter 9 Gender Inequality There is no nation where women and men are equals Women perform 60 of the work yet they earn 10 of the income and own only 10 oftheland 23 of the word s illiterate are women logical difference between females and males the social and cultural patterns attached to women and men 0 Gender divisions make women and men unequal Women and Men Are Differentiated and Ranked Gender Stratification the hierarchical placement of the sexes that gives women unequal power opportunities and resources Biological models for gender difference 0 Argue that innate biological differences between males and females produce different social behaviors Anthropological models for gender difference 0 Look at masculinity and femininity crossculturally stressing the variation in women s and men s roles Sociologists 0 Treat gender as a social creation deeply embedded in society s Gender Biological or Social Nature vs Nurture o Nurture argues that most differences are socially constructed 0 Nature the differences between women and men are rooted in evolution Biological Bases for Gender Roles 0 Chromosomal and reproductive differences make males and females physically different 0 Hormonal differences are also significant I Androgens males I Estrogens females I They both direct the process of sex 0 Biological differences between women and men are only averages I Influenced by other factors I Ex men are on average larger than women but that also has to do with physical activity and diet which is largely influenced by culture class and race 0 There is considerable overlap in the distribution of traits possessed by women and men 0 Gender is constantly changing o Femininity and masculinity are molded differently I 1 From one culture to another I 2 Within any one culture over time I 3 Over the course of all women s and men s lives I 4 Between and among different groups off the women and men depending on class race ethnicity and sexuality The Social Bases for Gender Roles 0 There is a wide variety in the social roles assigned to women and men 0 However there roles rarely vary randomly 0 Every society makes gender a major category for organizing social life I sociological perspective that calls on social rather than biological differences to show how all societies transform biological females and males into socially interacting women and men Gender and Power Gendered Institutions all social institutions are organized by gender the beliefs meanings and placement that value men over women 0 Institutionalize male control of socially valued resources forms of social organization in which men are dominant over women Gender inequality is tied to other inequalities race class and sexuality to sort women and men differently Inequalities also work together to produce differences among women and among men Some women get benefits from their race or class or their sexuality while they are simultaneously restricted by gender inflicts negative sanctions on those who are homosexual or bisexual 0 System of sexuality shapes the gender system by discouraging attachment with members of the same sex Sexuality is a form of inequality because it grants privileges to those in heterosexual relationships Sexual identities are socially constructed categories 0 Key linking process in the matrix of domination structured along the lines of race class and gender Sex differentiation is found in all societies but it doesn t always indicate low female status What Causes Gender Inequality Structural thinking treats gender inequality as the outcome of male control over socially valued resources and opportunities Friedrich Engles and Karl Marx o Industrialism and the shift to a capitalist economy widened the gap between the power and value of men and women MacrostructuralTheories 0 Explain gender inequality as an outcome of how women and men are tied to the economic structure of society 0 Women s economic role in society is primary determinant of their overall status 0 The division between domestic and public spheres of activity gives men and women different position of advantage and disadvantage o Roles in the labor force and in the family are interdependent Women s reproductive roles and their responsibilities for domestic labor limit their association with the resources that are highly valued Men s economic obligations in the public sphere ensure them control of highly valued resources and give rise to male privilege Capitalist Societies domesticpublic split is more significant 0 Because highly valued goods and services are exchanged in the public not the domestic sphere male supremacy keeps women in subordinate roles at work and in the home 0 Because of the connections between the class relationships of production capitalism and the hierarchical gender relations of its society patriarchy 0 United States is a capitalist patriarchy Socialization versus Structure Two Approaches to Gender Inequality To understand gender inequality 0 Distinguish between 1 a gender role approach 2 a gender structure approach emphasizes traits that individuals acquire during the course of socialization 0 Ex independent or dependent behaviors and ways of relating emphasizes factors that are external to individuals 0 Ex the social structures and social interactions that reward women and men differently Approaches differ in o How they view sexes o How they explain the causes and effects of sexism o In the solutions they suggest for ending inequality Learning Gender Gender Socialization how we learn gender Gender is not the same in all classes and races Children at Home One the strongest influences on gender role development in children occurs within the family setting Fathers have been found to reinforce gender stereotyping more often than mothers Majority of female characters were portrayed as dependent and submissive in children books 0 Women and girls are still underrepresented in book titles and as central characters the combination of feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual Fathers who display the most traditional attitudes about gender transmit their ideas onto their sons more so than onto their daughters 0 Mothers transmit their attitudes to their daughters more than their sons Adolescent boys follow their fathers resistance to changes in traditional male roles o Adolescent girls tend to be more supportive of egalitarian gender roles than their parents Males would be less likely than females to develop androgynous characteristics Parents who foster androgynous attitudes and behaviors in their children ultimately cause their girls and boys to have high selfesteem and selfworth Androgynous individuals 0 More effectively manage stress 0 Practice good health 0 College students have better relationships with their parents Children at Play Children teach each other to behave according to cultural expectations Boys more than girls 0 Played outdoors 0 Played in larger groups 0 Played in ageheterogeneous groups 0 Were less likely to play in games dominated by the opposite sex 0 Played more competitive games 0 Played in games that lasted longer Boys 0 Control more space 0 Often violate girls activities 0 Treat girls as contaminating Power play a complex social process involving both gender and separation and togetherness Boys are more easily accepted into play with girls than vice versa Girls are involved in neutral toy behavior 0 Encouraged by both parents to play with neutral toys 0 Boys are not treated the same Messages transmitted to children from advertisements affects their toy use 0 Have stronger effects on boys than on girls Formal Education Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act 0 Outlawed gender discrimination However girls and boys are not receiving the same education quotboy crisis young men are marginalized while girls are taking over the schools 0 although males do drop out of school more often than females the trend is most pronounced among minorities and boys from lowincome homes 0 boy crisis is an issue of race and class disadvantage not one of gender difference Schools shortage girls in every dimension of education curriculum teacherstudent interactions sports and female role models Curriculum 0 Formal and informal curricula are powerful shapers of gender 0 Girls take more algebra and geometry boys take higher math given them more advantages 0 Girls received higher grades than boys But tend to score lower on some standardized tests which are used to make big decisions about futures o Evaded Curriculum matters central to the lives of students that are touched on only briefly o Males report they were targets of sexual harassment in schools taunts challenging masculinity TeacherStudentInteractions 0 Girls receive less attention and different types of attention from classroom teachers Sports 0 Sport participation has a general education value 0 Title IX required that schools receiving federal funds must provide equal opportunities for males and females 0 There is improvement but women athletics are still underfunded 0 Opportunities for women as coaches and administrators diminished 46 of women s team coaches were women girls and women see fewer women as role models in such positions Female Role Models 0 Women occupy the bottom rungs while men have the more powerful positions 0 Women make up a large percentage of the nation s classroom teachers but a smaller percentage of school district superintendents 0 As the level of education increases the proportion of women teacher declines Socialization as Blaming the Victim A socialization approach can be misused in a way that it blames women themselves for sex inequality 0 Socialization diverts attention from structured inequality Reinforcing Male Dominance Male dominance is the force that socializes and a force that structure the social world It exists in all levels of society from interpersonal relations to larger institutions Language Ignores trivializes and sexualizes women Overuse of pronoun he Generic termmankind There are fewer derogatory terms that refer to men Interpersonal Behavior Gender inequality is different than other forms of inequality because individuals on both sides of the power divide women and men interact frequently in home workplace etc In mixedsex groups 0 Men talk more 0 Men show more visual dominance 0 Men interrupt more 0 Women display more tentative and polite speech patterns Men take up more space than women do Men touch women without permission more Women 0 Engage in more eye contact 0 Smile more 0 Generally exhibit behavior associated with low status quotdoing gender following the rules and behaviors expected of us as males or females we create gender in interaction Mass Media women are underrepresented in television newsrooms highly stereotyped behavior characterizes both children s and adult programming as well as commercials women appear less frequently in adds than men quotthe new woman places additional stresses on women and at the same time upholds male privilege 0 they work and still do all the housework and take care of the kids 0 more like superwoman Religion US religion follows a typical pattern 0 Clergy is male 0 The vast majority of worshipers are women Common views about gender 0 1 Women and men have different missions and different missions and different standards of behavior 0 2 Although women and men are equal in the eyes of the deity women are to some degree subordinated to men Bible promotes male dominance Women are more involved in churches and religious life The Law Women were denied the right to vote prior to the passage of the 19th Amendment During the past 4 decades legal reforms and public policy changes have attempted to place women and men on more equal footing 0 Force of laws depends on how they are enforced and interpreted in courts Politics In 1992 congress experienced the biggest influx of women and minorities in history Women still hold fewer than a fifth of all national seats Congress has two class of personal staff employees 0 1 Highly paid men who hold most of the power o 2 Lower paid women who are relegated to clerical and support staff globally women are making gains in politics gender gap refers to measurable differences in the way women and men vote and view political issues Structured Gender Inequality the US has one of the highest levels of workplace gender inequality in the industrial world Occupational Distribution Women s employment rates vary by race 0 African Americans women have had a long history of high workforce participation rates Women s participation in the US labor force is one of the most important social trends Women have no received equality in the workplace The two occupations projected to grow most rapidly between now and 2018 registered nurses and home health aides are typically filled by women refers to the pattern whereby women and men are situated in different jobs throughout the labor force Fewer women than men in prestige jobs White women were the major beneficiaries of the new opportunities Trickle down effect 0 White women improved their occupational status by moving into male dominated professions and African American women moved into old white women jobs The Earning Gap Gap between women s and men s earning has remained relatively constant for 3 decades Women earn 81 cents for every dollar men earned Earnings gap persists for several reasons 0 1 Women are concentrated in lowerpaying occupation o 2 Women enter the labor force at different and lowerpaying levels than men 0 3 women as a group have less education and experience than men therefore they are paid less than men 0 4 Women tend to work less overtime than men experience accounts for only 13 of the wage gap largest part of the wage gap is caused by sex discrimination Intersection of Race and Gender in the Workplace Women of color 0 Most segregated group in the workplace Concentrated at the bottom of the work hierarchy n lowpaying jobs with few fringe benefits Poor working conditions High turnover Little chance of advancement OOOOO How Workplace Inequality Operates Why are women unequal in the workplace 0 Some place the blame on the individuals others focus on structural conditions and others call on interactional processes to explain women s disadvantages I Rest on social processes rather than outright discrimination Individuals 0 Women s socialization their education and the choices they make to take time out of the workforce to have children produce different work experiences for men and women 0 Human Capital Theory rests on the individual characteristics that workers bring to theirjobs 0 Research shows that women s individual characteristics and their human capital only explains a small part of employment inequality 0 Ideas and practices about gender are embedded in workplace structures I The workplace itself produces gender disparities Dual Labor Market Theory centers on the labor market itself 0 The labor market is divided into two separate segments with different characteristics different roles and different rewards 0 Primary segment is characterized by stability high wages promotion ladders opportunities for advancement good working conditions and provision for job security 0 Secondary segment characterized by low wages fewer or no promotion ladders poor working conditions and little provision for job security I Women s work falls into this segment Men and Women of the Corporation study by Rosabeth Kanter 0 Found that organization location is more important than gender in shaping workers behavior 0 Men and women behave differently at work because differences were created by organizational locations 0 Workers in lowmobility or blocked situations regardless of their sex tended to limit aspirations seek satisfaction in activities outside work dream of escape etc Women gained entry into male dominated fields only after earnings and upward mobility in each of these field declined 0 Salaries had gone down prestige had diminished or the work became quotwomen s work 0 Ghettoization women specialized in lowerstatus specialties in different and less desirable work settings and in lowerpaid industries Many fields that opened up to women no longer have the economic or social status they once had 0 Structures have two tiers o 1 Higherpaying higherrankingjobs with more authority I continues to be male dominated o 2 Lowerpaying more routine jobs with less authority women s entry into medicine college teaching and law has been accompanied by organizational changes an invisible barrier that limits women s upward occupational mobility despite their motivation and capacity for positions of power and prestige men who enter femaledominated professions generally encounter structural advantages which enhances their careers Interactional theories explain why gender is such a major force in the labor process 0 Women s and men s outcomes are enacted and maintained through an interlocking web of social relations among workers 0 All of which draw on gender to guide their workplace interactions Gender in the Global Economy Gender relations in the US and the world are linked to the global economy Private businesses make investment decision that affect the lives of women and men all around the world Global Assembly Line uses the labor of women many of them young single and from poor rural areas Manufactures rely on cheap labor The Costs and Consequences of Sexism Who Benefits Transnational corporation derive extra profits from paying women less than men Women s caregiving keeps the economy going and provides privileges for individual men at women s expense 0 They take care of the kids and elderly and home so men can obtain work The Social and Individual Costs Sexism diminishes the quality of life for all people Our society is deprived of half its resources when women are denied full and equal participation in its institutions Women s inequality produces suffering for millions 0 Poverty that is caused by gender inequality 0 Pauperization of motherhood the highest risk of poverty comes from being female and having children which explains the high rates of both female and child poverty in the US Sexism denies men the potential for full human development because gender segregation denies employment opportunities to men who wish to enter fields such as nursing gradeschool teaching or secretarial work Male inexpressiveness can hinder communication between husband and wives and between fathers and children quota tragedy of American society Fighting the System Feminist Movements in the US Gender inequality in this society has led to feminist social movements 3 stages of feminism have been aimed at overcoming sex discrimination o 1 First stage grew from the abolition movement of the 18305 I women s freedom was an important as freedom from slavery I Seneca Falls convention approved a declaration of independence asserting that men and women are created equal and are endowed with certain inalienable rights 0 2 Gave priority to women s suffrage o 3 Sex discrimination in earning and advancement I National Organization for Women evolved I Seeking legislation to overcome sex discrimination Women s Struggles in the TwentyFirst Century The women s movement remains one of the most influential sources of social change 0 Even though there is a not a unified organization that represents feminism Feminist activities occur at grassroot level


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