World History II The Great War Notes
World History II The Great War Notes HIST 1020
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Hist1020 March 1, 2016 The Great War (1914- 1919) - How and why is this war so different than previous wars? War in the Balkans (1912-1913) Black Hand (1911- 1917) - “Unification or Death” - Pan- Slavic Nationalism: Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Macedonians Gavrilo Princip (1894-1918) - Killed Franz Ferdinand Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie (Sarajevo, Bosnia- Herzegovina) Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip, June 28 , 2014 Arrest of Gavrilo Princip (Sarajevo, 1914) A “second” shot heard round the world? Serbia must pay… Russia: The Power Behind War… - Triple Alliance: Italy (alliance with Germany 1882, alliance with Austria- Hungary 1882), Austria- Hungary (alliance with Germany 1879), Germany - The Balkans Bulgaria (aids Austria- Hungary & Ottoman Empire), Serbia - The Triple Entente Russia (aids Serbia), France (alliance with Russia 1894), Britain (treaty with Russia 1907, treaty with France 1904) Remember that Europe is one big ole family Germany and Russia The World at War Germany wanted a quick war… - And to weaken France Germany did not want a two front war The Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII - Come in from around top and attack from behind and up top “Poor Little Belgium” Taxis of the Battle of the Mame (1914) - British and French push back Germany using taxis The Western Front by October/ November 1914: Progress Measured in Yards (475 miles from North Sea to Switzerland) Mobilizing for War: Propaganda Great Britain France Germany Russia New Technologies of War - Poison Gas - Machine Guns - Planes - Tanks Technology: Tanks - The Tank was a British invention that smashed through barbed wire, crossed trenches, and shuttled soldiers across battlefields Technology: Machine Gun - The machine gun could fire up to 600 rounds per minute Technology: Airpower - Both sides used aircraft for observation, limited bombing, and air battles - Airplanes were slow, clumsy, and unreliable - The most famous German pilot was Baron von Richthofen (The Red Baron) Technology: U- Boats - Undersea boats (U- boats) were used by Germany to block trade - They were equipped with guns and torpedoes Technology: Poison Gas - Second Battle of Ypres (1915): Germans release 168 tonschlorine gas The Effects of Poison Gas: Severe Burns - Primary Areas Affected: Lungs, Armpits, Eyes The Effects of Poison Gas: Blindness A “War of Attrition” - “It is easy to be wise after the event, but I cannot help wondering why none of us realized what the modern rifle, the machine gun [and] the airplane would bring about. It seems so simple when judged against actual results.” – Sir John French, BEF Commander (fall 1914) War Casualties - Battle of the Somme (1916) French/ British: 600,000 German: 400,000 Territory Gained: 25 square miles - Battle of Passchendale (1917) British: 370,000 German: 260,000 Territory Gained: 40 square miles Trench Warfare - “Unless they shot first, nobody knew where the enemy was. Whenever they had the chance they shot down German soldiers… There was little defense against this sort of warfare because the streets were full civilians… It was nerve wracking in the extreme and resulted in savage and merciless slaughter at the slightest provocation.” – Lieutenant Fritz Nagel (German) Problems in the Trenches - Mud- trapped the wounded, dogged rifles and gear, slowed men down, and caused trench walls to collapse MUD, MUD, and MORE MUD - The wounded often became helplessly stuck in the mud that accumulated in the trenches - Due to these conditions several of the soldiers that were wounded during battle became entrapped in the mud and would eventually die from exposure Trench Boots and Flooding Trench Foot Rats and Lice - “A louse born in the morning can be a grandparent by nightfall!” – Popular WWI Comment Delousing Wartime Hygiene Gas Masks and Shaving Gillette Safety Razor War is a stalemate until… United States declares war on Germany (April 6, 1917) Russia leaves the war (Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, March 1918) - Territory Lost to Germany Baltic states Latvis, Lithuania Finland Poland The Last Window of Opportunity: The Final German Push (1918) - German populace LOW MORALE TIRED OF WAR th th th “11 Month, 11 Day, 11 Hour” - Two Minute Silence, Armistice Day (London, 1918) The “Architects of Peace” at Versailles (1919) - “The Big Four” David Lloyd George (GB) Vittorio Orlando (Italy) Georges Clemenceau (France) Woodrow Wilson (US) The Fourteen Points: 1.Abolish secret treaties 2.Disarmament to minimum level 3.Decolonization/ Self- Determination 4.League of Nations - Woodrow Wilson (1856- 1924) Treaty of Versailles (1919) - Harsher on Germany than Wilson’s plan - Article 231 (War Guilt Clause) - Article 232 (War Reparations) The Newly Independent States of Europe Women: During the War - Working on the home front - Took up jobs in the fire brigade and police force - On the battlefield (WAAC) - Joined the Voluntary Aid Detachment Women and the Vote Women and Votith in the US - 1920 19 Amendment - Women gain right to vote Based partially on their wartime service to the US When women got the vote - 1893: New Zealand is the first country to give women the vote - 1902: Australia - 1906: Finland - 1917: Russia - 1918: United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Austria - 1920: United States Effects of World War I - Before World War I feeling of optimism and progress of Human Kind - After the War feelings of pessimism and massive devastation “It cannot be that 2 million Germans should have fallen in vain… No, we do not pardon, we demand- vengeance.” – Adolf Hitler (1922)
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