Week 7 Notes - GC 440
Week 7 Notes - GC 440 GC440
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie S on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GC440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Weisenmiller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Commercial Printing in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 7 1 Biology of Sex a Is sex a physiological drive like hunger and thirst i Main difference sex is not essential for survival of individual ii Similarities l Arousal and satiation 2 Role of hormones 3 Involvement of specific brain areas 11 Arousal and satiation Diagram of Phases of Sexual Response a Sensory specific satiety the more of a specific food a person eats the less appealing the food becomes i Encourages a varied diet b Coolidge Effect quicker return to sexual arousal for a male when a new female is introduced i Observed in many species ii Cheap sperms expensive eggs theory 1 a male can potentially have a large number of children quickly by mating with different females more of his genes passed to the next generation III Role of Hormones on Sexual Activity a Sex hormones i Androgen male characteristics and function 1 Testosteronemajor sex hormone in males ii Estrogen female characteristics and function b Testosterone and Sexual Activity i Evidence from castration removal of the gonads studies 1 Sexual behavior decreases ii Testosterone appears necessary for male sexual behaviors but amount required is minimal iii Females initiate sex more at mid cycle when both estrogen and testosterone levels are increased 1 Testosterone may be more important than estrogen for this in women iv Testosterone increases as a result of sexual activity in both males and females 1 Cause effect relationship between testosterone and sexual activity is still unclear IV Brain Structures and Sex a Network of brain structures are involved in sexual activity i Medial PreOptic Area MPOA of hypothalamus MPOA picture Brain Structures and Sex Network of brain structures are involved in sexual activity Medial PreOptic Area MPOA of Hypothalamus Stimulation of MPOA In rats 1 increased copulation Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of MPOA larger in male rats depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone l Stimulation of MPOA in rats9 increased copulation without monkeys only masturbated 2 Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus of MPOA region of the brain that has two different shapes a Larger in male rats b Depends on prenatal exposure to testosterone ii Medial Amygdala 1 Active during copulation both males and females 2 Stimulation causes dopamine release in MPOA iii VentroMedial Nucleus VMN of hypothalamus Brain Structures and Sex cont d VentroMedial Nucleus VMN of Hypothalamus active during copulation in females destruction reduces responsiveness to males 1 Active during copulation in females 2 Destruction reduces responsiveness to males V Neurotransmitters and Sex a Dopamine and serotonin increases in MPOA in rats b Norepinephrine increases in men and women during sex c Dopamine increases in Nucleus Accumbens i In male rats increases also with new female Coolidge effect VI Sensory Stimuli and Sex a Interplay of internal hormonal conditions and external stimuli i Tactual ii Auditory iii Visual 1 Body symmetry is another important determinant of sexual attractiveness a May be indicative of genetic fitness iV Olfactory smell 1 Pheromones airborne chemicals released by an animal that have a physiological or behaVioral effect on another animal of the same species a Female gypsy moth attracts males from 2 miles away 2 What about us a Pheromones are detected by the VomeroNasal Organ VNO b VNO sends signals to MPOA and VMN of hypothalamus c McClintock study on menstrual synchrony i Menstrual synchrony in human females due to pheromones d Humans have a VNO too i Microscopic in size ii Generates electrical potentials to suspected pheromones
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