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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Sunday November 9, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/09/14
Human Nutrition 2210 11914 106 PM Week Eleven Trace Minerals Trace Minerals Needed in much smaller amounts Found in the body in much smaller amounts Essential Difficult to study because of the trace amounts needed by the body Food content dependent on soil content plantsgrains Animal sources of mineral are generally absorbed Iron the body39s gold Very important Found in every cell Only about 1518 is absorbed from diet not very well absorption Heme iron animal sources vs Nonheme iron plant sources Heme iron are better absorbed than nonheme Vitamin C enhances absorption Iron man importance Functions of Iron Hemoglobin in red blood cells o Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide 0 Carries oxygen to other cells o High turnover constantly making and destroying red blood cells high demand for iron Myoglobin in muscle cells Electron transport chain Enzyme cofactor Immune function Drug detoxification pathway Iron Absorption 1 Form of Iron 0 Heme iron vs Nonheme iron 2 Presence of Vitamin C 0 Can triple non heme iron absorption supplement 3 Meatfishpoultry MFP factor o Enhance iron absorption 4 Presence of inhibitors o Phyrates inhibits spinach 2 to 5 iron absorption low Iron absorption regulated by 3 mechanisms 0 1 Diet increase dietary iron decrease absorption inverse relationship 0 2 Storage low storage increase absorption high storage decrease absorption 0 3 Red blood cells anemic increase absorption low RBC count Iron Deficient Anemia Most common form of anemia Amount of RBC in plasma Low levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit Insufficient intake and storage of iron At Risk 0 Infants toddlers chronic blood loss vegan runners women of childbearing age Symptoms o Paleness brittle nails fatigue difficulty breathing poor growth Food sources of Iron Red meats enriched grains fortified cereals iron skillet Milk is a poor source Iron Needs RDA 8 for males and 18 for females rare for female to be higher Assume 18 of dietary iron is absorbed low Average iron intake is below RDA Toxicity of Iron Can be serious especially for children Diarrhea constipation nausea abdominal pain Upper level 45mgday Hemochromatosis absorbs too much iron 0 Genetic disease 0 Iron deposit which can lead to organ damage 0 May go undetected until 5060 years when organ fails Iron can be toxic Why don39t we rust Iron in the body is very controed because it39s fairly reactive structure is tightly bound Hemoglobin makes up 95 of red blood cells Tin man tin doesn39t rust Blood transfusion test iron level first too high too low can39t Zinc Essential nutrient Better absorption from animal sources Deficiencies cause growth retardation and poor sexual development children are at risk Absorption of Zinc 40 of zinc animal sources is absorbed if body39s needs are great Presence of phytic acid found in grains and cereals decreases absorption Calcium supplements decreases zinc absorption Functions of Zinc Development of sexual organs and bones Synthesis of DNA Cofactor to many enzymes Component of superoxide dismutase enzyme Protein metabolism 0 Wound healing immune function growth Insulin function Food sources Average intake is marginal for women and adequate for men Mostly animal products shell fish legumes Toxicity of Zinc Inhibits copper absorption Any excess potential for toxicity Reduce HDL Increase risk heart disease Selenium Readily absorbed Cofactor for glutathione peroxidase enzyme Protects heart and other cells from oxidative damage Works together with vitamin E Cancer prevention reduce risk Deficiency of Selenium Muscle pain Muscle wasting Cardio Myopathy heart weakness Toxicity of Selenium Iodine Garlicey breath Upper level 400ugday Hair loss Nausea Vomiting weakness Rashes cirrhosis Purple locoweed contains toxic levels of selenium in soil Out west don39t eatconsume develop toxicity General custard s horsessoldiers on purple locoweed Used for thyroid hormone synthesis Regulates metabolic rate growth development Thyroid gland enlarges goiter with low intake of iodide Iodine vs iodide diff form use interchangeably Cretinism stunting of fetal growth and mental development as a result of low iodide diet Akron Ohio 0 First controlled experiment where iodine salt was used to clinically show reverse development of goiter school girl 0 1924 o 56 of Akron population had goiters women 0 100 success at reversing goiter Food Sources Iodize salt 12tsp meet RDA we add iodine to salt Saltwater fish seafood dairy Sea salt is poor source Plant source dependent on soil content Average intake exceeds RDA Toxicity of Iodide Fluoride Thyroid hormone synthesis is inhibited Toxic goiter results Consumption of seaweed Upper level is 11 mgday small amounts milligrams Role in the prevention of cavities Fluoride inhibits bacterial growth that may cause cavities Fluoride water 1ppm Food sources of Fluoride Fluoride water O2mgcup Tea Seafoodseaweed Toothpaste Adequate intake 31 38 mgday for adults Typical fluoride water 2mgcup Toxicity of Fluoride Mottling of the teeth in children Limit toothpaste to pea size for kids High amounts can weaken kids teeth Other minerals trace minerals Copper Manganese Chromium etc 11914 106 PM 11914 106 PM