Week 6 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kerrigan Reading on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Monday October 5 2015 Life102 Cellular Respiration Part III Cellular Respiration is overall exergonic Oxidative Phosphorylation The electron transport chain happens in the mitochondrial membranes NADH and FADH2 are oxidized proteins are reduced NADH s electrons have higher energy while FADH2 s have lower energy The final reduction step of oxidative phosphorylation is the reduction of oxygen As the electrons move down the ETC the voltage is increasing ATP Synthase pumps hydrogen in high to low concentration and uses the energy to synthesize ATP Oxidative Phosphorylation produces approximately 28 ATP The ETC is the oxidized part of this step and Chemiosmosis is the phosphorylation part Through Cellular Respiration one molecule of glucose produces about 32 ATP which represents only about 34 of the energy available in the glucose molecule the rest is produced as heat used by the system In Anaerobic Respiration sulfur or another equally electronegative element replaces oxygen as the electron acceptor which produces H2S instead of H20 Fermentation Two types alcohol and lactic acid Lactic Acid Fermentation In all fermentation this occurs only in glycolysis Instead of glycolysis being a linear track fermentation glycolysis is a cycle NADH is oxidized to NAD producing 2 ATP and 2 Pyruvate as well as lactate Alcohol Fermentation Releases CO2 Byproduct is Ethanol Generates 2 ATP and 2 NAD Only produces 2 ATP overall Photosynthesis Photoautotrophs use energy from sun to make their own food Heterotrophs cannot make their own food obtain energy by eating another organism Equation for photosynthesis 6CO2 12H2O light energy gt C6H1206 602 Cellular Respiration C6H1206 602 gt 6CO2 6H2O ATP Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction and requires energy which comes from the sun Photons on shorter wavelengths have higher energy than photons on longer wavelengths Light is transmitted and then either absorbed or reflected The color we see is the wavelength not absorbed by the object ex leaves are green so they absorb violet blue orange and red Chlorophyll pigment of photosynthesis 3 Pigments Chlorophyll a chlorophyll b and carotenoids Monday October 5 2015 Chlorophyll absorbs a photon and excited electrons that were in ground state These excited electrons release energy which is captured by chemical reactions This energy is often released as heat of fluorescence Stage 1 The light reactions Photosystems are transmembrane proteins embedded in the thylakoid membrane Composed of lightharvesting complexes containing chlorophyll Transferring energy from photon that excited chlorophyll molecule moving from chlorophyll to chlorophyll Core of photosystem is the reactioncenter complex and is where light energy is convened 2 chlorophyll molecules in reactioncenter complex do not get excited and electrons are transferred Primary Electron Acceptor accepts electrons transferred from 2 chlorophyll The 2 central chlorophyll molecules are oxidized and PEA is reduced Electrons move from the PEA in the first photosystem Photosystem II to chlorophyll in Photosystem I through the electron transport chain Linear Electron Flow The chlorophyll molecules in Photosystem II are called P680 because 680 is the optimal wavelength The electrons from Photosystem II in P680 are harvested from the splitting of water H Gradient is established to power chemiosmosis The electrons in chlorophyll in Photosystem l are called P700 ATP is generated in the electron transport chain between Photosystems II and In this case the molecules where electrons were transferred is oxidized and NADPH is reduced Stage 2 The Calvin Cycle 2 sets of 3 Carbons Phase 1 is carbon fixation Uses enzyme Rubisco Phase 2 is reduction Bisphospholycerate is reduced and NADPH is oxidized leads to 6 molecules of G3P G3P is a type of sugar One molecule of G3P is released and then binds with another G3P and creates glucose Phase 3 is regeneration of RuBP 5 remaining G3P is used to construct a larger molecule with the help of 3 ATP This process is not possible without carbon dioxide When there are low concentrations of CO2 photorespiration takes place C4 plants have bundle sheath cells around the vein C4 plants use cyclic electron flow instead of linear this enables the synthesis of ATP CAM plants undergo gas exchange carbon fixation at night and the calvin cycle and light reactions during the day Both C4 and CAM undergo the same exact processes just at different times
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