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UCI Psych 9C- Week 2

by: Kelly

UCI Psych 9C- Week 2 68080

Bailey, E

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About this Document

Notes for Psych 11C/9C, Bailey.
Bailey, E
Class Notes
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 68080 at University of California - Irvine taught by Bailey, E in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals in Psychlogy at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Psych QC Lecture 3 101 1 5 Sexual behavior Unlike the other biological motives sex is inherently social Physiological aspects of sexuality Biology can affect a human s psychological state Hormones and human sexuality lnjections men vs women in testosterone Women s desire increases around ovulation time o What happens physiologically during sexual arousal Human sexual response cycle Excitement beginning of arousal Plateau arousal continues orgasm close Orgasm series of rhythmic muscle contraction Swift peak in arousal Ejaculation of sperm in men Resolution relaxation refractory period men Cultural and cognitive aspects of sexuality Situational determinants of sexual behavior Men are more aroused women are aroused Increases likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior Less satisfaction with partner s appearance and sexual behavior lf men watch films of women being sexually coerced they are more likely to be aggressive towards women Mate choice Men report physical attractiveness as more important When women look a certain way they are more likely to be successful in reproducing offspring Women report social and financial status as more important If the woman were to bear offspring they want someone that can look after the offspring financially Psych QC Lecture 3 10115 Sexual orientation How common is each sexual orientation 90 heterosexual 12 homosexual 2 3 bisexual 4 something else 2 no answer What determines our sexual orientation Genetics Pre natal environment High levels of testosterone at birth gt More masculine hormonal influence Threat and aggression Physiological aspects Sympathetic branch of the nervous system Gets organism ready for vigorous action Accelerate heart rate speed up metabolism The fight or flight response Zebra seeing lion running toward him flee Attacking instead of fleeing fight Male aggression and hormones Boys are more aggressive than girls Girls relational agression Girls fight verbally social exclusion talking badly about each other When men take steroids they become increasingly aggressive Less testosterone gt Better verbal skills Negative correlation relationship between two things between the ratio and aggression Negative correlation Two things go in opposite directions As ratio of two things increase aggression decreases 2D4D ratio Hand with index finger being shorter than the ring finger has been associated with greater exposure to testosterone 10515 Are you here i clicker question Are you here u AHere Housekeeping 106 Finishing Chapter 12 today a Stay on top of your reading Stand up to Sti ma Mental Health eek 54153 3 Thurs 108 quotStand up to Stigmaquot Workshop TO STIGMA el39s lalk ubau l MENTAL HEALTI Sat 1010 Service Project Support National Alliance for Mental Illness 5K Walkers NAM Orange County WLK quotllll l If a Sign upforwalkatL39gng 39 39 A 1 1 Jl For more info go Prof Martin Still interested in grad school Cultural and Cognitive Aspects of Threat and Aggression People vary in how aggressive they are n Unrealistically high self esteem n Sensation seeking amp impulsivity How does culture affect aggression n Explicit teaching eg parents u Subtle cues about what our friends think u Observational learning watching others 39 Bobo doll experiment httpszz vwwxzyoutubecomwatchVPrOOTCVtHbU Large scale observational learning TV movies n Prime time TV 2 5 violent acts per hour n gt 10000 acts of TV violence each year u Causal connection between media violence and aggression Motives Beyond Drives So far a Drive reduction 39 Internal tension eg hunger9 motivates behavior eg eat But what about other motives n Motive to Belong n Motive to Achieve a Pain and Pleasure 10515 Observinq violence or watching violence can have impact on a person s agression Paying video games gt more aggressive Motives Beyond Drives Topics to be Covered n The Motive to Belong n The Motive to Achieve The Motive to Belong Desire friendships belonging We ll do different things to belong F Benefits of Social Contact Tangible support practical or material needs 10515 Why do we want to belong Tanqible benefits Practical to material thinqs Friends can provide tangible support ex money rides etc Emotional support Emotional needs When you are sad you have someone to talk to 10515 Benefits of Social Contact Tangible support practical or material needs Emotional support emotional needs m Performance orientation Fear of failure 60 V AL Focus on performing well infront of others a quotAi k The Motive to Achieve Mastery orientation Focused on learning Avoidance fear failure approach desire success I Not afraid of failure jUSt want to suceed What gives rise to fear or desire a Performance vs mastery orientation a Response to adversity give up or try harder httpWwwVoutubecomwatchvu6XAPnuFiJc People can have both avoidance and approach Mechanical skill People do well when rewards are high Rudimentary cognitive skill People do worse when rewards are high Above rudimentary skill Rewards don t matter as much 3 Factors Autonomy Desire to be self directed Mastery Urge to get better at skills The Twin Masters Pain amp Pleasure Topics to be covered irPa lt Pleasure n The av01dance of pam i n The pursuit of pleasure vx mJ 39 4 V 5 ti L f fglpain if v i 1 I m 339 pleasure 4 Physical vs Psychological Pain i clicker question What do you think hurts more physical pain or psychological pain u A 2 physical pain n B psychological pain n C 2 can be equally painful The Avoidance of Pain Many different types of stimulation activate a brain network called the pain matrix Fast thalamus to cortex and slow pain pathway thalamus to subcortical structures The Pursu1t of Pleasure Elia A Intrinsically vs extrinsically rewardmg n I clicker question Why are you attending college A I am intrinsically motivated to learn B I am extrinsically motivated eg parents want me to I want more C Some ofboth C I have never thought about it Wanting NAcc dopamine vs Liking frontal regions endorphins paw Y 10515 Physical and psychological pain can be equally painful Common currency Psychological pain is associated with physical pain Intrisical Mastery We get pleasure from doing it Extrinsical Others want me to more materialistic rewards People that are intrinsically oriented do better You want to go to the party you look forward to it but then you get there and you don t enjoy yourself as much Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Low order needs desired required before higher order needs SELF ACTUALIZATION Pursue Inner Talent Creativii Ful llment SELFESTEEM Achievement Mastery Recognition Respect BELONGING lOVE Friends Family Spouse Lover SAFETY Security Stability Freedom from Fear PHYSIOLOGICAL Food Water Shelter Warmth WiFi i Emotion and Emotion Regulation Topics to be covered a The Many Facets of Emotion n The Functions of Emotion n Emotion Regulation The Many Facets of Emotion Behavioral Aspects of Emotion u iclicker questions What type of behavior do you think is most prominently associated with emotion u A Hand gestures a B Facial Expressions u C Tone of voice a D Posture 10515 In order to achieve higher things you need the lower things Facial Expressions Universality n Beginning at a very early age crosscultural Facial Expressions Universality n Crosscultural n Evolutionary Explanation Facial Expressions Universality n Crosscultural n Evolutionary Explanation n http WWWvoutubecornWatchv5G6ZR5ngTI 10515 Where do facial expressions come from 10515 Facial Expressions Display Rules D Social amp Cultural In uence Physiological Aspects Different theories n Commonsense n J amesLange n CannonBard n SchachterSinger Commonsense Stimulus 9 Emotion 9 Body I tremble because I feel afraid 10515 JamesLange Theory Stimulus 9 Body 9 Emotion specific I feel afraid because I tremble Pearl JamesLange Theory CRITIQUE DIFFERENT EMOTIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE SAME BODILY RESPONSE Stimulus 9 Body 9 Emotion specific I feel afraid because I tremble CannonBard The bear makes me V Body tremble and feel afraid N Emotion general Stimulus 9 Brain 7 Pearl Critique If different emotions are associated with same bodil res onse then wh do we have the i m ression that our CannonBard V D bodies are doing different things in different emotional states The bear makes me V Body tremble and feel afraid N Emotion general Stimulus 9 Brain SchachterSinger Stimulus 9 Body 9 CognitionAppraisal 9 Emotion WHY I label my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous The Many Facets of Emotion i clicker question Which theory do you think is most correct n A 2 Common sense stimulus emotion body n B 2 James Lange stimulus body emotion n C Cannon Bard stimulus brain body emotion u D Schacter Singer stimulus physiological arousal cognition emotion 10515 10 Emotion Regulation In uencing n Which emotions we have a When we have them a How we experience or express them Cognitive Reappraisal Changing the meaning Suppression Try to hide the emotion 10515 11 Emotion Regulation In uencing which emotions we have when we have them and how we experience or express them a Cognitive reappraisal changing the meaning a Suppression try to hide emotion Cognitive reappraisal seems to be most effective 10515 Are you here i clicker question Are you here u AHere 12 Thursday October 8 2015 Psych 90 Lecture 5 Commonsense Stimulus gt Emotion gt Body You see a bear you feel fear your body trembles I tremble because I feel afraid James Lange theory Stimulus gt Body gt Emotion You see a bear your body reacts you feel emotion I feel afraid because I tremble Critique Different emotions are associated with the same bodily response Cannon Bard Stimulus gt General brain response gt Body AND Emotion There s a bear your brain reacts you feel fear and tremble at the same time The bear makes me tremble and feel afraid Critique If different emotions are associated with the same bodily response then why do we have the impression that our bodies are doing different things in different emotional states Schacter Singer Stimulus gt Body gt Cognition Appraisal Why gt Emotion Theres a bear you have a bodily response you think about why you re having that response then you feel emotion l abe my trembling as fear because I appraise the situation as dangerous Thursday October 8 2015 Emotion regulation Influencing Which emotions we have When we have them How we experience or express them Cognitive Reappraisal Cognitive Thinking Reappraisal Exchange Changing the meaning If you change your opinion on something it will decrease your negative emotion Suppression Try to hide the emotion Decrease the emotion they feel to change how they feel Emotion Regulation Influencing which emotions we have when we have them and how we experience or express them Cognitive reappraisal seems to be most effective Social cognition The process of interpreting and thinking about the social world Attribution People spend them asking themselves why did they do that Two broad types of casual attributions Situational attributions External to the person ex weather Thursday October 8 2015 Dispositional attributions lnterna to the person ex personality Culture plays role in attributions lndividualistic cultures rights preferences of the individual Collectivistic Maintain standards norms family traditions Individual differences in individualist collectivistic values Not all people from a culture are alike Fundamental attribution error Pervasive bias that attributes a cause to dispositional and not situational factors lndividualistic cultures dispositional Lazy Collectivistic cultures situational Struggling in a bad economy Person perception PrejudiceABCs Affective emotion component FeeHngs Behavioral component Discriminatory behaviors Cognitive thinking components Stereotypes Used to categorize a certain group of people Measurement of stereotypes Subtle often automatic unconscious Implicit Association test Stereotypes and selffulfilling prophecies You are fulfilling something that a person believes about you Thursday October 8 2015 Attitudes Attitude formation Facts experience Attitude change Being persuaded by others Peripheral route to persuasion Who s giving the message is greater than the message Attitude change Being persuaded by others The role of experience Exposure to new things ideas people Persuading ourselves Cognitive dissonance uncomfortable inconsistency among one s behaviors beliefs attitudes or feelings We want to reduce this discomfort by reducing the inconsistencies thus changing our attitudes Psych 9C Lecture 2 9291 5 Why do we do what we do Motivational states Everything we do is not necessarily conscious 1800s Claude Bernard noted that every organism has both an external and internal environment Homeostasis Internal equilibrium Changes when the external environment changes Ex When the weather gets hot we sweat to maintain homeostasis Internal adjustments and behaviors Deviations from homeostasis State of tension is called a drive Hunger Eating and Obesity Physiological aspects of hunger and eating The role of the liver after eating lots of glucose Some converted to glycogen and fatty acids Converted back to glucose when needed Conversion process managed by liver Supply exceeds demand gt full signal Demand exceeds supply gt hunger signal Environmental cues sights and smells Ex If you see a Starbucks you will stop even if you are not thirsty Set point If deprived of food usually eat more Psych QC Lecture 2 9291 5 lf overeat usually eat less next time Body wants to maintain a steady weight Other control signals for feeding Stomach walls contain receptors Leptin and neuropeptide Y NPY Sends signals that you are no longer hungry Signal takes about 20 minutes Leptin works by inhibiting NPY If you have a deficit leptin you will overeat Hypothalamus Dualcenter theory What happens to animals when the LH lateral half go signal is cut out They will not eat If the medial signal stop signal is cutout They will continue to eat Cultural and cognitive aspects of hunger and eating Culture Try to meet cultural body ideals Social situation How does eating with other people affect a person People tend to eat more in front of other people Study showed a person kept eating soup even if they were full because other people around them were eating soup Memory If people cannot remember their last meal they tend to eat more Psych 9C Lecture 2 9291 5 Obesity Genetic roots of obesity Long term study examined 12 pairs of twins Eat extra 1000 calories a day Do the same exercise Weight gained between 1030 pounds Twins both gained the same amount of weight Shows there is a genetic component to gaining weight Several genetic mechanisms may be involved Ex Peptides proteins The thrifty gene hypothesis Our ancestors lived in a time where there were food shortages natural selection the people that went to reproduce favored people who had an inefficient metabolism or holding on to fat Environmental factors 23 obese in 1991 to 30 in recent years Changes in diet and activity level Solutions Drink more water than sugared drinks Eat more protein Get more exercise Restrict television use Expand access to fruits and vegetables Farmer s markets Psych QC Lecture 2 9291 5 Highlights Maintaining homeostasis equilibrium lf deviation from homeostasis tension builds lf leptin deficit then you will over eat Damaged lateral portion you will not eat Damaged medial portion you will keep eating Obesity is in genetics People have different metabolism more efficient than others


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