Discover the Universe Week 7
Discover the Universe Week 7 AST 1002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 1002 at University of Florida taught by Reyes, Francisco J in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Discover the Universe in Science at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Tuesday October 6 2015 Discover the Universe Week 7 Volcanism on Mars The larger volcanoes in the solar system are found in Mars The largest is Mons Olympus 22km tall 600km wide Shield volcanoes None are known to be concurrently active but eruptions occurred 100 million years ago Mars has a surface gravity only 40 that of Earth and its volcanoes rise 25 times as high because of this Liquid Water on Mars Yes most likely a large amount but a long time ago About 4 billion years ago Mars had a thicker atmosphere higher pressure and warmer surface to maintain its water Runoff channels Found in southern highlands Extensive river systems like Earth Carried water from highland to valleys Outflow channels Caused by flooding Found at the equator Formed about 3 billion years ago The ejecta from the crater was once liquid Permafrost water ice just below the surface limited during the impact These types of craters are called splosh craters What happened to the water Liquid water from runoff channels froze into permafrost and polar caps about 4 billion years ago Tuesday October 6 2015 After 1 billion years volcanic activity heated the surface and melted permafrost Flash floods created outflow channels Volcanic activity slowed after that and the liquid water refroze Mars Global Surveyor in 2000 revealed gullies along the inside of craters evidence for more recent existence of liquid water Melting evaporation and sublimation Melting the transition from solid to liquid Evaporation the transition from liquid to gas Sublimation the transition from solid to gas without going to the fluid phase Polar Lander Phoenix Landed in May 2008 Evidence of frozen water under the surface near Martian poles A trench carved by the scoop of the Phoenix lander The small lumps of light material inside the trench on the lower left side is water ice that sublimated soon after being exposed Rims of craters gullies Salty water may stays in liquid phase for a short time due to its lower freezing point Salt dissolved in water has a lower freezing point The analysis of the salty content in this linear gullies has been interpreted as the presence of flow of liquid salty water Salty water may contain perchlorates Sodium NaClo4 and potassium perchlorates Missions Rover Curiosity Curiosity landed on Mars on August 5th 2012 inside the Gale crater The area may have been flooded by fastmoving water A good site to look for possible organic material which may be indication of fossil life The Moons of Mars Mars has two very small moons discovered in 1877 Tuesday October 6 2015 Phobos 28 x 20 km Deimos 16x10 km Less dense than our Moon or other terrestrial worlds The search of life on Mars in 1976 the Viking landers carried out experiments to look for microbial life Revealed processes similar to metabolic reactions From these experiments there is still no evidence Martian Meteorite evidence for life in the past Meteorite ALH84001 found in Antartica in 1984 Volcanic rock originally formed 45 billion years ago Analysis show it originated in Mars traces of Martian atmosphere found inside Possibly thrown from Mars surface due to impact several million years ago Landed in Antartica 13000 years ago In 1996 scientists claimed to have found evidence for fossilized life in this meteorite However the claims of life are considered tone controversial Internal Structure of the Terrestrial Planets All terrestrial planets are differentiated The larger planets take longer to cool and therefore still have active mantles and liquid cores Mercury a b Venus spacecrafts did not detect magnetic field Venus seems to have a liquid core but the slow rotation seem sot be the reason for not having a magnetic field Thursday October 8 2015 Surface resembles a young Earth about a billion years ago Never developed plate tectonics because of high surface temperature and soft crust lVIars in 1997 the Global Mars Surveyor detected a very weak magnetic field 1800 that on Earth This may imply a non liquid core Mars rotation is fast like Earth s Atmosphere evolution on Earth Venus and Mars The primary atmosphere of all these planets has evolved Some gasses were combined and form part of the soil some gasses were released from the soil and some gasses were lost into space All the planets developed a secondary atmosphere probably the product of outgassing gasses from the interior of the planets released by volcanic activity The development of the Earth s atmosphere Outgassing produced carbon dioxide ater sulfur oxide and nitrogen compounds Carbon dioxide on the Earth dissolved in water and reacted to form carbonates which was incorporated into the soil Nitrogen was released from molecules containing it by UV radiation from the Sun The release of oxygen came from living organisms int he ocean Oxygen atoms combined to produce ozone which shielded UV radiation The atmosphere of Venus and Mars The atmosphere of Venus may have retained the 002 because there was no water to absorb it The 002 in Venus atmosphere trapped 99 of the IR radiation and produced the extreme greenhouse effect That accounts for the high temperature of the surface of the planet Mars The 002 was absorbed faster than it was producedThere was volcanic activity but much less than on Earth and lower plate tectonics Thursday October 8 2015 Less 002 caused a decrease in temperature The 002 froze out of the atmosphere by the reduction in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere The greenhouse effect in Earth and Venus Earth The low content of carbon dioxide 002 in the atmosphere of the Earth absorbs only part of the IR emission emitted by the surface Venus Large 002 content The production and removal of CO2 in the atmosphere of Earth Venus and Mars Earth 002 is released from volcanism lt dissolves in water and incorporated into rocks Venus released from volcanism but since there is no water in the atmosphere very little is incorporated into the surface and rocks Mars released from volcanism but volcanism activity was lower than on Earth The Jovian Planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune Their masses are lager in comparison to terrestrial planets They are gaseous low density all have rings all have satellites and all that we see of these planets are the top of the clouds No solid surface is visible The density increases toward the interior of planets All of them are further from the Sun Jupiter Named after the most powerful Roman god Third brightest object in the night sky Largest of all the planets Atmospheric cloud bands The Great Red Spot a feature that has been present since it was first seen with a telescope about 350 years ago Thursday October 8 2015 At least 67 satellites Four largest called the Galilean satellites lo Europa Ganymede and Callisto Discovered by Galileo in 1610 A faint system of rings was discovered by Voyager spacecrafts Units 52 AU from the Sun Diameter 11 times Earth s Density 1300 kgmquot3 Escape velocity 60 kms Surface temperature 120 K Sidereal orbital period 1186 years Rotational period 041 days 984 hours Saturn The second largest planet that is visible with the naked eye Named after the father of jupiter Twice Jupiter s distance from the Sun Similar banded atmosphere Uniform butterscotch hue At least 62 satellites the largest is Titan the only satellite in the solar system that has a permanent atmosphere Spectacular ring system seen with even small telescopes Lowest density of all planets 710 kgmquot3 less dense than water which is 1000 Units Distance 95 AU Diameter 95 Earth s diameter Mass 95 times Earth s mass Escape velocity 36 kms Thursday October 8 2015 Surface temperature 97 K Sidereal orbital period 2942 years Rotational period 044 days 1056 hours