Week 4 Notes: Hinduism & Book Buddhism
Week 4 Notes: Hinduism & Book Buddhism RELSTDS 102
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Bronge on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RELSTDS 102 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Dr. Jeffrey Kaplan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religious Studies at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/11/15
10615 Eastern Traditions Possible to have many more options of dreams Eastern traditions would argue because they are constantly being reborn into new species Hindus believe we all share certain memories we use those so that we all can share the same space Hinduism The origin of every Eastern tradition It all started with Hinduism All Eastern Traditions come from Hindu belief NO religious wars if you make a mistake now you will come back in the end there is no hurry Commonalities of the Eastern Traditions Difference between Eastern and Western Traditions In the West time is seen as linear Past Present amp Future Textual books show religious knowledge Matter is permanent Metal is metal In East Time is Cyclical every ending is a new beginning Both worlds and humans follow same patterns of birth growth decay and death Expe enUal Everything is impermanent Everything is changing Hinduism39s roots may be traced back as early as 2500 BCE Syncretism the competition between two religions one will win but can make a change in both during the process Created Hinduism Modern Hinduism emerged from the blending of a now extinct Indus Valley civilization with the culture of the invading Aryan tribes Texts of Hinduism KNOW FOR TEST Vedas written text or books of Hinduism but they are not enough 0 4 Types of Veda Text Samhita39s Songs melodies prayers used by the priest Most Important is Rgveda 1028 Hymns Priests took drugs Soma over time has disappeared twice Born Brahmana39s Text for Brahmana39s dealing with sacri ce and ritual Priestly Castle of top Mixture of whites and darks The Aranyakas Most boring books impossible to follow A mind for philosophy Upanishads MOST IMPORTANT focus on the role of Brahman chief God of Hinduism The greatest of them are the Mahabharata Great stories The Bhagavad Gita taken from the Mahabharata and focuses on a philosophical argument between Krisna and Arjuna Bhaki Devotion to God Avatara Incarnation of God Sruti The oral tradition to truly understand the tradition you must know both The Caste System Developed at the time of the Aryan conquest at the design of the Aryan Priests Keeping people at a certain level racially socially and economically India is still very rural and pheasant society Society was divided into three basic subgroups Brahmins Priests Lighter Skinned Kshatriya Warriors Dr Woman Vaisyas Farmers Sudras Later a fourth caste developed and was added Poverty The Untouchables do not have a caste they are outside the caste system Gandhi caked Dalits low class Harijon Proper Name Children of God The bottom of the Bottom They will be seen to pollute things You become one by Bad Karma They have to take their shoes off when in certain areas Hinduism means it s your fault you39re not society s problem and it is your problem As our next life begins you can switch caste systems Within these 4 castes there are thousands of sub castes The lowest castes in the castes system is the Sudras For marriage castes must match Always contradictions with these basic subgroups Brahmins will sometimes help Dalits in need if sick Brahmin Kshatria Vaisyas All The Stages of Life Most Hindus are secular Affects only Brahmins Only discussing men 4 stages of Life for Brahmans Brahman Men Student Householder Family Man Retires Forest Dweller Leaves behind family and personal history Ascetic Difficult forms of Yoga 0 Women do not do this when the husband leaves they will try to carry on their regular duties 0 All of these are a function of Karma Karma Karma The sum total of all of the things you do you don39t do think and feel through all of your lives from the very beginning Different Forms The rst form the experience within your rst lifetime Things you do don39t do Think amp don39t think Broncos game example Creeps you out Inherited Karma Karma leftover from all of previous lives Both of these go together in determining what your next life will be Goal of Hinduism is Moksa The Gods of Hinduism KNOW ALL OF THIS Look at his notes There are 330 million Gods in Hinduism It is also a true statement that there is 660 million gods If a Hindu says there is only one it is true How We have tradition that goes back 4500 years very literate tradition Kali Goddess of Destruction and dissolution Destroys everything bad Brahma Saraswati The Creator Goddess of knowledge Creator of the world Vishnu Preserves Goddess of love beauty and delight Shiva Destroys goddess of power Avata rs A God head that emerges from other Gods Vishnu has a number of avatars of whom Krisna Rama and Buddha are the best known Vishnu has 10 avatars of whom 9 have come and gone and one is yet to be born Many believe the last will bring destruction to the world Blue or black skinned Hinduism in America India is the most dangerous place for women to live in all of the world Chapter 4 Notes The Beginnings of Buddhism One of the world39s oldest and most signi cant religions Had beginnings in India but spread mostly throughout Asia Siddharth Guatama Known as Buddha or quotThe Awakened Onequot Many different stories told but he was son of a prince in Shakya Tribe which is Nepal today He seemed to have special markings on his body signifying his leadership capabilities He escapes his town on quotGreat Going Forthquot Tried surviving and eventually reached Bodhi reaching a state of profound understanding Buddha spent the rest of his long life traveling from village to village The Basic Teachings of Buddhism Impossible to know what Buddhism actually taught many readings and writings in other languages Generally regarded as Basic Buddhism are the three Jewels The Buddha ldeal human one who others should imitate The Dharma Sum of Buddhist teachings and how to view the world and live properly The Sangha Community of monks and nuns Buddha wished to focus on two questions 1 How can we minimize suffering both our own and that of others 2 How can we attain Inner Peace Three Marks of Reality Reality manifests three characteristics 1 Constant Change a Look at life as if really is Change is a regular and good thing to deal with but not always the easiest 2 Lack of Permanent ldentity a Each person and each thing is not changing but is made up of parts that that are also constantly changing 3 Existence of Suffering a Dukkha Sorrow or suffering Meaning that to live means inescapany to experience sorrow and dissatisfaction The Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path Linked chain of truths about life 1 Suffering Exists a quotBirth is attended with pain decay is painful disease is painful and death is painfulquot We feel like jugglers in life trying to balance too many things at once It39s better to recognize why suffering comes and we can learn from it 2 Suffering Comes from Desire a We all have desires and because life around us is constantly changing no matter how much we acquire we cannot be permanently satis ed 3 To end suffering End Desire a That everyone accept peacefully what occurs aiming less for happiness and more for inner peace The individual should focus on the present not the past or the future or ones desires for them 4 There is a way to attain release from suffering a The Ultimate goal of Buddhism is Nirvana Suggests many things end of suffering inner peace and liberation b To reach Nirvana Buddhism recommends following the noble eightfold path 5 The Noble Eightfold Path a Right Understanding Right Intention Right Speech Right Action Right Work Right Effort Right Meditation and Right Contemplation The In uence of Indian Thoughts on Early Buddhist Teachings Uncertain whether Buddha intended to start his own religion Nevertheless we know that early Buddhist teachings accepted certain elements of Indian thought that contemporary Hinduism Jainism and Buddhism share to some extent Ahimsa quotDo No Harmquot For Buddhism ahimsa is fundamental The Ideal holds that to cause suffering to any being is cruel and unnecessary life is already hard enough for each of us High Ideal not always easy to achieve The result is a way of life that is harmonious and free of remorse The Soul and Karma Karma describes how one is reborn Because Buddha rejected the existence of a soul explaining how Karma works is more dif cult in Buddhism It is thought to accompany and affect the elements of personality that reappear in later lifetimes Nirvana The Everyday world of change is samsara a term that suggests decay and pain Once the rare occurrence of reaching Karma has happened in a culture that believes that individuals have already been born many times before this current life The Early Development of Buddhism Buddhism might have entirely remained an Indian Religion much as Jainism has if it were not for an energetic kind named Ashoka He wanted to rule a large part of India Timeline of Events Pg 138 Theravada Buddhism The Way of the Elders In early centuries of Buddhism several schools claimed to adhere to the original unchanged teachings of the Buddha All of them shared Buddha39s opposition to the Vedic ritual and the Brahmin priesthood and they embraced his apperception for simplicity mediation and detachment Of all the conservative schools one has survived to the present day Theravada Trying to pass on Buddha39s teachings unchanged Theravada has been a commonly used to refer to the forms of Buddhism that are found mostly in Sri Lanka and SE Asia Commonly performs quottemporary ordinationquot Monasticism as we can see permeates society and everyday life in Theravada Buddhist cultures Theravada Teaching and Literature Thervada Collection of Buddha39s Teachings are called PaIi Canon Written into three groups Theravada Art and Literature In Early forms of Buddhism there were no images of Buddha only symbols Examples like eightspoked wheel lotus ower etc By the rst century of the Common Era however images of the Buddha began to appear Mahayana Buddhism The quotBig Vehiclequot Second Great Branch of Buddhism is Mahayana Stresses enlightenment is a call to compassion Source to some of the most extraordinary creations of the human mind New Ideals Compassion and the Bodhisattva Mahayana began to explore the possibilities of following a religious path that was active in the world Compassion became an essential virtue and preeminent expression of wisdom The term used for this is Karuna lmplies that we are part of the same ever changing universe Mahayana Thought and Worldview Mahayana has encouraged a vision of reality that us imaginative wide and often profound Three Body Doctrine The Buddha nature can express itself in 3 ways Heavenly Bidhisattvas Shuntata and Tathata Mahayana Literature Early forms of written works on Buddhism are known as sutras One of the most widely loved works of Mahayana was the Saddharma Pundarika Sutra known as the Lotus Sutra The Spread of Mahayana in East Asia Spread of India to Central Asia and to China Buddhism and its literature was carried into Korea from Central Asia and China as early as 372 CE Eventually entered Japan in the sixth century Major Schools of Mahayana Pg 155164 Vajrayana Buddhism The quotDiamond Vehiclequot Mahayana Buddhism in India developed practices and beliefs that have sometimes been called esoteric such as use of special chants and rituals to gain supernormal powers The name suggests strength clarity wisdom and ashes of light all of which are associated with the enlightened awareness that this vehicle seeks to emit Origins Practice and Literature of Tibetan Buddhism The pre Buddhist Tibetan religion worshipped the powers of nature