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Chapter 8 Geol 110

by: Elizabeth Rubio

Chapter 8 Geol 110 GEOL 110

Elizabeth Rubio
Long Beach State

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Natural Disasters
Ewa Burchard
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 03/21/16
CHAPTER 8­ SUBSISTENCE AND SOILS A particular event that is an example is the subsidence  aftermath of Hurricane Katrina  in Louisiana. ­NASA investigated this particular state to investigate the soil and land from this  state, and prevent and predict possible hazards.    Venice is Shaking  •Beautiful and famous city in Italy –Subsiding (sinking) at rate of 1.5 mm (~0.06 in) per year in some areas –Built on 118 small islands in a coastal lagoon –Extremely prone to flooding •Has been happening naturally for millions of years –However, over pumping of groundwater significantly increased rate of  subsidence –Human response has been to raise buildings and streets •Frequency of floods has increased  SOLUTION­ Mose System, which is building huge engineering barriers when there is an increase of tide Soil and Hazards •Soil –Solid earth material that has been altered such that it can support rooted plant life –Any solid earth material that can be removed without blasting ­Helps evaluate natural hazards •Soil is produced through weathering –Physical and chemical breakdown of rocks –Changed by residual or transported activity of soil organisms ­Residual/ Transported Soil and Hazards cont.  •Soil development depends on: –Climate –Topography –Parent material •The rock or alluvium from which the soil is formed –Time •Age of the soil –Organic processes •Activity of soil organisms Soil Horizons •Soil profile –Created from vertical and horizontal movements –Distinct layers parallel to the surface •Layers in a profile are soil horizons –O: organic materials –A: mineral and organic materials –E: forms zone of leaching with the A layer –B: enriched in clay, iron oxides, etc., resulting from leaching •Bt enriched with clay materials •Bk: accumulation of calcium carbonate (k­just CaCO3), (caliche CaCO3  layers/lenses/ chunks) –C: partially altered (weathered) parent material –R: unweathered parent material Hardpan­Impermeable, clayCaCO3/ Iron Oxide/ Silica •Can be an important diagnostic tool for analyzing a soil profile, but can be misleading –O and A horizons are dark Relative Soil Profile Development •Soils differ in development –Weakly developed soil •A horizon directly over a C horizon (without B) •Few hundred to several thousand years old –Moderately developed soil •A overlying an argillic B ttat overlies the C horizon •More than 10,000 years old (at least Pleistocene) –Well­developed soil •B redder, more translocation of clay to B, and stronger structure t t •Between 40,000 and several hundred thousand years and older •Soil chronosequence: youngest to oldest –Give information about the recent history of an area Water in Soils­ Properties of Soil •Saturated –All the pore spaces in a block of soil are completely filled with water –Unsaturated otherwise •Moisture content –Amount of water in a soil –Important to strength of soil and potential to shrink and swell •Water flow –Saturated flow if all the pores are filled with water –Unsaturated flow otherwise (more common) (this image shows the air  relationships when there are solids near each other along with water ) Classifying Soils •Soil taxonomy –Used by soil scientists –Based on physical and chemical properties of soil profile


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