Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes
Week 1 and 2 Lecture Notes BIOL 118
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Helbling on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 118 at University of Washington taught by Karen Petersen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Survey of Physiology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Biology 118 Week 1 and 2 Lecture and Book notes What is retrieval practice and how does it help students learn To retrieve something is to get it back so if you are doing retrieval practice you are trying to recall things in your mind that may help you answer a question One way of doing this is to study review questions as if you were taking a test before the test of course This way you can see if you would be able to answer this type of question if it were on a test and if you are not able to you can see that is one area for improvement and further studying What is wrong with too little sleep Without enough sleep you don39t give your body enough time to heal itself This can cause poor memory decreased appetite weakened immune system and increased risk of obesity due to reduced insulin sensitivity A weakened immune system in turn will increase your chances of getting an illness like the common cold Hierarchical Organization of the Body Organism gt System gt Organ gt Tissue gt Cellular gt Chemical Digestive System 0 Main Functions 0 Ingestion Putting food in mouth 0 Mechanical Breakdown Chewing in the mouth churning in the stomach segmentation in the small intestine o Propulsion Swallowing o Digestion Further breakdown of food in stomach and small intestine 0 Absorption taking nutrients into the rest of the body bloodstream from the small and large intestines o Defecation removing waste products ber and H20 mainly from the body Tissue Types Epithelial Muscle Neural and Connective tissues are all used in the digestive system Epithelial Tissue Makeup there are three types 0 Squamous at with the nucleus at the top appear as a fried egg at hexagons when strati ed stacked together multiple layers 0 Cuboidal appear as a cube with the nucleus in the center hexagon shape when strati ed o Columnar appear as skinny tall rectangles with the nucleus near the bottom third square shape when strati ed 0 Functions nutrient transport protection from many pathogens produce protection mechanisms absorption and reabsorption of nutrients Surface Area Volume Ratios volume increases faster than surface area because it is a cubed measurement rather than the squared of surface area Liver and Pancreas Functions 0 Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder o Bile salts target fatty foods and break them down through mechanical digestion 0 Without bile there would be a buildup of fats in the intestines only a small amount would be digested o Pancreatic juice is produced by the pancreas It contains sodium bicarbonate which is alkaline so it neutralizes stomach acid when they meet in the duodenum rst part of the small intestine 0 Blood ows into the liver from the intestines full with food particles passes rows of cells narrow channels more surface area and maximum contact the liver removes toxins pathogens and other quotbadquot things from the blood such as alcohol 0 The liver stores glycogen large glucose molecules where it is used for energy later Fatty Liver Disease The liver also stores lipids but when there is too much there is a buildup the cells get stressed in ammation happens and they die andor cause liver cancer This can be caused by eating too much Metabolic Syndrome a group of factors that raise your risk for health problems like diabetes stroke and heart disease A few of these factors include 0 large amount of visceral fat fat surrounding organs especially in the midsection o unusual levels of cholesterol could be either a decreased amount of HDL good or a high amount of LDL bad cholesterol 0 high blood pressure 0 Insulin resistance and high blood sugar 0 Being overweight or obese What is Homeostasis Dynamic Equilibrium Values vary but stay within a normal range Negative Feedback is what pushes you back to within the range negative is good in this case If stress pushes your body temp up negative feedback pushes you back to the normal temp 0 Sensor aka receptor monitors a value and sends that info to the control center 0 Control center determines if it is within or out of the normal range 0 Effector causes a change if the value is out of the normal range to get it back to a healthy value Positive Feedback the complete opposite of negative feedback positive feedback increases the distance from the normal range making the situation even worse For example if someone gets shot their body knows it needs to stop pumping so much blood so they do not lose too much and bleed out but decreasing blood flow will decrease oxygen flow which can cause organs to shut down That is further away from the normal range Temperature Regulation in the human body there is an upper tolerance limit of 106 degrees and the lower tolerance limit is 96 degrees so when someone is within this range they are in homeostasis Things such as hypothermia and a fever can push you outside of those limits and out of homeostasis o Pancreas Regulation of Blood Glucose O O O the digestive enzymes that are created by the pancreas are made by the acinar cells islets many types of cells but only two to worry about now alpha and beta Insulin a hormone made by beta cells in the pancreas allows cells in your body to absorb glucose molecules to use them as energy beta cells release insulin after they receive a chemical signal from the brain telling them that sugar was eaten and there is an increased amount of glucose in the blood Glucagon a hormone made by alpha cells in the pancreas When blood glucose levels get too low it turns glycogen stored in the liver into glucose which is released into the bloodstream and decreases the amount of glucose in the liver so as much glucose as possible can go through the bloodstream So insulin and glucagon work together to keep blood glucose levels within a healthy range Negative feedback in the pancreas is about keeping plasma glucose levels regulated when there is too little people suffer from low blood sugar and often pass out too much glucose can dehydrate you because it will spill over into urine and to expel it from the body you expel more water with it the normal range of blood glucose is 70100 mgdl of blood 0 Diabetes Homeostasis Failure 0 How does Diabetes promote a fatty liver Insulin resistance body does not use glucose effectively it builds up in the blood and doesn39t get absorbed by cells causes an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver How can we use scienti c evidence to make healthy dietary choices 0 Health impact of fructose and arti cial sweeteners O O Hypothesis NonAlcohol liver disease and fructose Fructose attacks bacteria in the gut microbiome which creates endotoxins which can cause Fibrosis In ammation if the endotoxins reach the liver The idea is that fructose disrupts tight junctions of epithelial cells increasing permeability letting toxins through into the bloodstream where it can damage the liver Randomized DoubleBlind Trial in this kind of clinical trial neither the patients nor the people administering the medications knows the dosage and actual medication that the patients are receiving Placebo Effect In some trials especially double blind trials a placebo or quotsugarquot pill with no effect may be given as a replacement for the real drug This can prevent the patients from having a bias about how a particular drug may affect them For example if a trial is 0 testing the effectiveness of a drug on how it treats depression if patients who are taking the drug and patients who receive a placebo record the same effectiveness then it may not be the drug causing the change It could be a psychological change in the patients just believing that they are feeling better because of the drug so they start actually feeling less depressed Cohort Analysis tracks a mass amount of people for a long time and tracks the outcomes MetaAnalysis Analyzing many research experiments on the same product or subject and comparing their results to increase the reliability of those results A nocebo is a pill that causes harmful effects It works in the opposite way as a placebo For example if you tell someone that a drug will give them a headache they may report having a headache even if the quotdrugquot that was given to them was a sugar pill and had no effect It is not included in double blind clinical trials for ethical reasons What are the roles of water and pH in our extracellular uid 0 Body composition chemical composition of the body males are 60 water and females are 50 water respectively 4050 solids consisting of Proteins gt Lipids gt Minerals Na and Cl ions are abundant in blood plasma gt Carbs gt Misc 0 Properties of water water has polar covalent bonds that attach the hydrogen and oxygen molecules to create the molecule it39s a very small molecule 0 pH buffers O 0 When you measure pH you are measuring the amount of Hydrogen Ions Strong base complete ionization Weak base partial ionization All molecules of a strong acid will ionize in water and release H ions A buffer system limits the potential shift in pH caused by an excess pf acid or base in the body Normal pH range should be between 735 and 745 Being below 735 is called acidosis and death occurs about 68 Symptoms inhibits brain muscle fatigue coma Being above 745 is called alkalosis and death occurs about 80 Symptoms excites brain twitches convulsions 0 Diabetic Ketoacidosis DKA Homeostasis failure 0 when insulin levels are too low glucose isn39t allowed to be taken up by the cells so blood glucose levels rise The cells start using fat for energy and that causes ketones result of breaking down fat to form in the blood making it more acidic hence acidosis Ketones spill into the urine which is how you test for them If the pH of blood becomes too acidic you can have serious health problems as a result 0 Changes in Global Diets health and environmental impact What is Metabolism 0 Kinetic vs Potential Energy Kinetic energy is what is expelled through the process of metabolism in this case heat Potential energy is energy that can be used to run the metabolism process 0 Energy Balance In the metabolism energy in is equal to energy stored and energy used 0 E in E stored E used 0 Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions catabolic reactions involve breaking down food into usable energy and heat That energy is used in anabolic reactions to build up and repair cells Compare the structures and function of the organic molecules 0 Carbohydrates Simple vs Complex 0 Starch Glycogen Cellulose 0 We can only digest starch and glycogen and we can break them down quickly 0 Glycogen is the easiest to break down because there are more branches so there are more places where it can be targeted and broken down 0 Triglyceride neutral fat 0 Saturated vs Unsaturated fatty acids Saturated fatty acid single bonds between carbon pairs convenient storage form ex butter Unsaturated fatty acid contain double bonds between carbon pairs double bonds create a kink or bend in the chain mono if only one double bond poly if 2 or more double bonds ex Olive oil 0 Hydrogenation Which lipids are quotbadquot fats Transfats product of partial hydrogenation occurs naturally in red meats typically banned in most common processed foods Cholesterol and Bile Salts 0 Amino Acids and RGroup Variation There are 20 amino acids which all contain an amino group a carboxyl group and different variations of an R group The Rgroup determines which amino acid it is its pH and which charge it will have 0 Protein Levels of Structure and Denaturation 0 Primary the structure of amino acids 0 Secondary 3D shape of proteins either alpha helix or beta pleated sheets 0 Tertiary The interactions between the proteins 0 Quaternary The structure of protein macromolecules and the interactions between multiple polypeptide chains Enzymes Substrates attach a chemical reaction occurs and then the substrates detach each enzyme has a particular function you can tell its function by its shape How are substances transported in and out of cells 0 Phospholipid Bilayer o Molecules have to be either very small lipidsoluble or hydrophobic to cross the membrane 0 Phospholipids differ from triglycerides phospholipids have a phosphate group while triglycerides do not but have 3 glycerol groups 0 The phospholipid bilayer blocks ions from crossing the cell membrane unless transporters are present 0 Types of Transport 0 Passive Kinetic Energy Down a concentration gradient high to low Types of Diffusion Simple Diffusion fatsoluble molecules easily pass through the phospholipid bilayer Carriermediated facilitated diffusion a protein carrier helps a speci c chemical pass through the lipid bHayer Channelmediated facilitated diffusion Osmosis Insulin Resistance There are fewer insulin receptors that signal glucose transporters so fewer glucose molecules can go in the cell So when insulin resistance occurs cells have fewer functional glucose transporters than normal 0 Active ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Up a concentration gradient low to high Carrier mediated vs vesicles How do cellular organelles work Lysosomes digest cells and other things autophagy that aren39t functioning properly or need to be replaced including food worn out organelles and damaged cells 0 They are lled with digestive enzymes and have a pH of 5 active transport pumps h into the lysosomes to keep it acidic o Mitochondria Cellular Energy 0 Mitochondria require 02 to function 0 Break down a lot of covalent bonds carbon and hydrogen for energy 0 With excess fatty acid intake the mitochondria becomes damaged which causes beta cell failure in the pancreas which leads to cell death and type 2 diabetes
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