Week Four Lecture Notes: Phonetic Transcription and Phonology
Week Four Lecture Notes: Phonetic Transcription and Phonology LING-L 103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmen Paul on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LING-L 103 at Indiana University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see INTROD TO THE ST OF LANGUAGE in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
914 916 Introduction to the Study of Language WEEK FOUR Phonetic Transcription Examples P PWN Map maep lnjure Ind3r tu too two to leit late jet yet Practice Sentences zukiprz selebreited oe gli menkiz biredei Zookeepers celebrated the gleeful monkey s birthday pekdsoo haed sem prIdi naIs aebz Pizasso had some pretty nice abs oe aijIn telev13n sord Intu oe livirj rum The ying television soared into the living room Audio Transcriptions 1 2 dId ju it jet Did you eat yet dgeil jet D eat yet Natural Classes of Sounds Sets of sounds that have one or more features in common Behave in the same way with respect to some phonological feature Voiced and voiceless sounds Consonants and vowels Categories of consonants Obstruents stops fricatives affricates Sibilants s z j 3 t d3 Sonorants vowels nasals liquids glides Categories of vowels Phonology Phonology the study of the mental organization of a language s sound system Core Questions 1 How can sounds be sequenced a Phonotactics our knowledge of the way sounds can combine in a language to form words Can these be a word in English tImp1yes 130g no mbdto no szk no epIink yes he no bod yes psor no 2 What are the sounds in a language that are meaningfully distinctive Phonemes 3 How do these sounds change as a function of their local context Phonological rules Categorization The human mind tends to ignore irrelevant physical differences when grouping things into categories English t tphoneme th t Lt D P allophones top stop eighth writing fountain Allophones physical variations of the same sound Phoneme mental category of sounds o are used to distinguish between words Minimal Pair a pair of distinct words differing in only one sound The sounds that differ across minimal pairs of words are separate phonemes t m a lee top tap mop map top tap tap taep Not all differences create minimal pairs Stop stdp sthCIp aspirated t In English switching t for th does not affect the meaning of a word These sounds are allophones of the same phoneme Bengali t and t dental t tan tune tan quotpullquot sat seven sat sixty 0 These are separate phonemes Types of Sounds Distribution Sounds that are separate phonemes are in contrastive distribution are sounds that create minimal pairs in a language t m Sounds that are allophones are in complementary distribution related sounds whose appearance can be predicted In English aspiration is predictable 0 Stop consonants are only aspirated at the beginning of words and stressed syllables Contrastive two distinct mental categories associated with two separate appearances Complementary one single mental category associated with two appearances 0 Example 39 Supermandanger 39 Clark Kentelsewhere