Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 BIOL 2221
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Date Created: 10/11/15
111 Chapter 1 Notes Anatomy A The study of structure 1 Inspection looking at it x rays MRIs etc 2 Auscultation hearing listening using a stethoscope 3 Dissection cutting into surgery separating tissues 4 Palpation feeling pulse Physiology A The study of function 1 Heart how well does it contract how often how strong Characteristics of life A Organization 1 Living things are sometimes symmetrical B Cellular Composition 1 How is it made up C Metabolism 1 The changes in energy D Excretion 1 What39s left of it 2 Is there waste product a Ex Breathing releases C02 E Responsiveness 1 Does the organism change when exposed to external stimuli a Ex Plant to sunlight F Homeostasis 1 A way to keep order in yourself 2 Ability to maintain internal stability G The Life Cycle 1 Development changes happen puberty 2 Reproduction able to propagate itself 3 Evolution change in gene frequency viruses freckles Human Structure A Reductionism breaking into smaller pieces Figure 17 1 Organism Human Organ System Cardiovascular Organ Heart Tissue Cardiac Muscle Cell Cardiomyocyte Organelle Sarcoplasmic ReticulumEndoplasmic Macromolecule Nucelic Acid Molecule Phosphate Group 9 Atom Phosphorus B Holism properties of the whole organism that could not be predicted by the properties of its separate parts 1 A doctor treats a person as awhole not just one area PONFS P PWEquot III C How things function as a unit Feedbackloops A Main form of homeostasis 1 Receptors senses change such as cooler temperature 2 Integrator control center brain 3 Effectors carries out commands blood vessels contract vasoconstriction blood vessels expand vasodilatation B Negative Feedback Loops 1 Reverses changes made to the body Figure 19 and 110 a EX When you39re thirsty you have low uid levels and your brain tells you to drink something 2 Hormones help negative feedbacks low blood sugar releases glucose Positive Feedback Loops 1 Child birth Figure 112 2 Not as common as negative feedback loops 3 Also known as SelfAmplifying Chapter 2 Notes 0 Atoms Review Protons Neutrons0 Electrons Proton and Neutrons0 are in the nucleus Atomic Number number of protons Atomic Mass number of protons and neutrons Isotopes same number of protons but a different number of electrons Radioisotopes very unstable all have a half life 1 Thallium 201 injected to see the function of the heart and blood vessels 2 Physical T 12 3 days 3 Biological T 12 7 days G Ions unequal number of protons and electrons 1 Cations and Anions KNOW FOR TESTS A Table 21 Elements of the Human Body 1 Be able to rank the major elements 16 2 Know the category of all other elements in table B Table 22 Major Electrolytes and the Ions Released by Their Dissociation 1 Be able to recognize the 6 electrolytes 2 Do not need to know cations and anions Figure 214 Functional Groups of Organic Compounds 1 Left and right Columns D Table 23 Types of Chemical Bonds 1 Be able to identify the bond types and their corresponding characteristics 2 Fill in the blank and matching for the test Free Radicals A Molecules with an odd number of electrons TUFUUOPU 0 1 Superoxides 02quot B Comes from metabolic reaction from toxins and radiation VI VII VIII 1 Too much is superoxide is BAD and causes mutation in cells 2 EX Cancer too much growth C Treatment Antioxidants neutralizes free radicals 1 Vitamin E and Vitamin C Molecules A Structural Isomers 1 Same molecular formula different structures and properties 2 Glucose Galactose and Fructose C6H1206 B Molecular Weight 1 Sum of all atomic weights in a molecule Bonds A Ionic 1 Weak attraction between cations and anions 2 Each donates electrons 3 Intramolecular B Covalent Fig 27 1 The sharing of electrons bond can be single double or triple 2 Nonpolar covalent electrons share equally 3 Polar covalent electrons not shared equally due to electronegativity 4 Intramolecular C Hydrogen bond Fig 28 1 Found between molecules that is why water droplets are able to cling to the side of the water bottle 2 Intermolecular Water A Consists of polar covalent and hydrogen bonds B Cohesive and adhesive C Versatile solvent D Has a high degree of thermal stability 1 EX why Atlantic Ocean is not warm in March and April Molarity A Moles of solute per liter of solution B 1 mol 6022X10quot23 gmol C 1 mol of solution ofglucose with 1 L of H20 180g ofglucose D 2M2molL 1M18g1L E pHlogH F Our physiological blood pH74 should stay between 735745 Chemical Reactions A Types 1 Decomposition Reactions Fig 213a 2 Synthesis Reactions Fig 213b 3 Exchange Reactions Fig 213c B Effectors of Reaction Rates 1 Concentration 2 Temperature XI X11 3 Catalysts biological catalysts are enzymes Organic Compunds A Macromolecules molecular weight in the 1000s 1 Carbohydrates 2 Lipids 3 Proteins 4 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides B Functional Groups 1 Help determine the properties of a molecule 2 They are all groups of atoms attached to a carbon backbone Fig 214 C Reactions 1 Dehydration Synthesis releases water 2 Hydrolysis decomposition adds water to the molecules Carbohydrates a source of energy that can be quickly mobilized hydrophilic A General formula CH20n nnumber of carbon atoms B Monomer monosaccharide glucose fructose and galactose Fig 216 C Disaccharides sugars composed of two monosaccharides sucrose lactose and maltose Fig 217 Polysaccharides long chains of glucose glycogen cellulose starch Page 70 Often conjugated with proteins and lipids 1 Glycolipid base is lipid with linked carbohydrates 2 Glycoprotein base is a protein with links of carbohydrates 3 Proteoglycans base is a carbohydrate with attached proteins Lipids hydrophobic Fig 219 A Monomer fatty acids a chain of 424 carbon atoms with a carboxyl and methyl group at either end and 2carbon acetyl groups in the middle 1 Saturated when a carbon atom is completely saturated with hydrogen atoms 2 Unsaturated always at least one double bond 2 hydrogens could be in the place but they aren39t B Triglyceridemolecule consisting of 3 fatty acids covalently bonded to a 3carbon alcohol called glycerol 1 Also known as neutral fats at room temperature they are oils C Phospholipids Fig 220 1 The structural foundation of cell membranes 2 Glycerol2 fatty acids Phosphate group 3 Said to be amphphilic hydrophilic and hydrophobic D Steroids all have a precursor of cholesterol 1 17 of its carbon atoms are arranged in 4 rings 2 Other steroids synthesize by using cholesterol Proteins A Proteins are a polymer of amino acids 1 Carbon center with carboxyl group hydrogen atom radical R Group and N H2 bonded to it known as amino group 2 R Group differs between the 20 amino acids B Peptides gnu 1 Any molecule composed of two or more amino acids joined by peptide bonds 2 The bond forms when the amino bond of one amino acid to the carboxyl group of another Fig 2 2 3 C Structures Fig 224 1 Primary sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds 2 Secondary coiled or foiled shape held together by hydrogen bonds between the slightly negative C0 and the slightly positive N H of another that is some distance away a May be an alpha helix or beta sheet 3 Tertiary formed by the further bending and folding of proteins into various globular and brous shapes 4 Quaternary two or more polypeptide chains by noncovalent forces such as ionic bonds and hydrophobichydrophilic interactions a Denaturing is a conformational change that takes a quaternary to a primary structure due to extreme heat or pH often destroys protein function D Functions 1 Structure keratin gives strength to nails hair and skin surface 2 Communication some hormones and other celltocell signals are proteins 3 Membrane transport form channels in cell membranes that tell what can and cannot pass through and when 4 Catalysts most metabolic pathways are controlled by enzymes human body39s catalyst a Enzymes often end in ase amylase breaks down amylase into starch Fig 2267 5 Recognition helps to recognize cells and their properties 6 Protection antibodies and other proteins neutralize organisms that invade the body XIII Nucleic Acid A Monomer Nucleotide 1 Compounds with 3 principle components a nitrogenous base and monosaccharide and one or more phosphate groups 2 ATP is the most recognized nucleotide B Adenosine triphosphate ATP Fig 229 1 The bodies most important energytransfer molecule 2 In order for ATP synthesis to take place it must undergo glucose oxidation Fig 231 C Nucleic acids 1 The largest is DNA 100 million to 1 billion nucleotides 2 RNA carries out the instructions of DNA when it splits 7010000 nucleotides 1 Cells A Theory All organisms are composed of cells and cell products The cell is the simplest structural and functional unit of life Cell activity controls all structures and functions of the organism Cells come only from preexisting cells not from nonliving matter All cells have fundamental similarities 1 PWEquot Bl 90 9 Nt 9 2 3 men hapes Chapter 3 Notes Squamous at skin Polygonal many sides gliabrain nerves Cuboidal square kidneys Columnar columns rectangle digestive system Spheroid circle white blood cells Discoid half blownup balloon red blood cells Stellate stars neurons Fusiform thick in the middle then tapers off smooth muscle Fibrous rods skeletal muscle C Sizes 1 Why do cells need to be small So they can have a good surface area to volume ratio 2 As cell size increases volume decreases which is bad for the function of the cell D Structure 1 Plasma Membrane a De nes the boundaries of the cell governs its interactions with other cells and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell b Made of phospholipid bilayer o 98 of the molecules are lipids O O O 75 of those are phospholipids 20 are cholesterol molecules cholesterol stiffens the membrane in spots and in places of high concentration they can increase membrane uidity by preventing phospholipids from becoming packed closely together 5 are glycolipids o 2 of membrane are proteins but they constitute half the weight Their roles are the following Page 94 0 000 O Microvilli Receptors a way for chemical signals to communicate with the cells Secondmessenger systems Fig 319 Channels and carriers transport materials in and out of the cell Cellidentity markers act as ID tags to say which belong and which are foreign bodies Celladhesion molecules holds cells to other cells a Serve to increase cells surface area b Sometimes can be very dense and called brush border Cilia a Hairlike processes microtubules that are about 7 to 10 um long b Many are sensory but all have 92 structure c Dynein arms allow wavelike movement 0 Cystic brosis when the arms can39t move because they have mutated chloride pumps and cannot expel mucus II Messenger systems A Secondmessenger system 1 A messenger binds to a receptor 2 The receptor releases a G protein 3 The G protein binds to an enzyme adenylate cyclase removes two phosphate groups from ATP and converts it to cAMP below 4 Two phosphate groups are removed 5 cAMP initiates a reaction cascade in the cell that brings about some type of change B Simple diffusion 1 Movement of particles from a place of high concentration to a place of lower concentration 2 Factors that affect rates of diffusion a Temperature increase in temperature makes faster diffusion b Molecular weight increase in weight makes slower diffusion c Steepness of concentration gradient steeper the concentration gradient the slower the diffusion rate d Membrane surface area e Membrane permeability Tonicity the ability of a solution to affect the uid volume and pressure in a cell Fig 316 C Carriermediated transport diffusion does not require ATP W 1 Facilitated diffusion the carriermediated transport of a solute through a membrane down its concentration gradient 2 Active transport the carriermediated transport of a solute through a membrane up its concentration gradient requires ATP a Sodiumpotassium Pump in each cycle of action this membrane carrier removes 3 Na ions and puts 2 K ions back in the cell therefore high K concentration in the cell 8 Vesicular transport moves large particles or numerous molecules at once through the membrane 1 Endocytosis brings matter in the cell a Phagocytosis cell eatingquot b Pinocytosis cell drinkingquot c Receptormediated endocytosis enables a cell to take in speci c molecules from the ECF with a minimum of unnecessary matter by binding to speci c receptors 2 Exocytosis discharging material from the cell a females releasing an egg 111 Cell Interior A Nucleus 1 The largest organelle 2 Surrounded by the nuclear envelope B 8 11 v D v v 3 DNA in the form of chromatin and proteins go into the nucleus and RNA comes out 4 Inside is the nucleoli which makes ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum 1 Little network within the cytoplasm 2 Rough ER covered with ribosomes a Produces phospholipids that synthesize proteins b Most abundant in cells that synthesize large amounts of protein antibodies and digestive 3 Smooth ER lack ribosomes a Abundant in cells that engage in detoxi cation b Stores calcium and releases it to trigger muscle contractions Ribosomes 1 Read coded genetic messages Golgi Complex 1 Warehouse of the cell Lysosomes 1 Aid in cell suicide 2 Made by the Golgi Complex 3 Clean up 4 Split break down organelles Peroxisomes 1 Neutralize free radicals and detoxify alcohol Mitochondria 1 The powerhouse of the cell 2 Energy to converted to ATP and stored here C entrioles 1 An assemble of microtubules 93 Cytoskeleton 1 Protein laments and cylinders that give a cell its shape 2 Composed of a Micro lament made of the protein actin which produces cell movement b Intermediate laments participate in junctions that attach some cells to their neighbors c Microtubules has long chain of globular proteins called tubulin Hold organelles in place Maintain cell shape Act as railroad tracks so the motor proteins can walk organelles around the cell PROTEINS END IN IN ENZYMES END IN ASE 2 lt Chapter 4 Notes DNA A Structure 0 Sugar Nitrogenous base and Phosphate group 0 Pyrimidines cytosine C and thymine T o Purines adenine A and guanine G 0 Double helix 0 Law of complementary base pairing A T and C G each of which have hydrogen bonds RNA A Structure 0 Much smaller than DNA 0 Purines adenine A and guanine G o Pyrimidines cytosine C and uracil U B Types 0 Messenger RNA mRNA a mirrorimage copy of the gene then migrates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where a ribosome is reads it39s code 0 Ribosomal RNA rRNA rRNA and enzymes make up ribosomes 0 Transfer RNA tRNA delivers amino acids to the ribosome and the ribosome chooses from the assembled amino acids in the order directed by the codon of mRNA Protein Synthesis going from DNA to RNA A Transcription the process of copying genetic instructions from DNA to mRNA in nucleus 0 RNA polymerase binds to the DNA and recognizes patterns that inform it where to begin 0 The polymerase opens up the helix reads it and makes corresponding RNA 0 At the end of the gene there is another sequence that serves as a terminator o The RNA produced is called premRNA o Enzymes remove the introns and splice the exons together to form functional mRNA Translation converts the language of the nucleotides into amino acids 0 Ribosome creates a good environment for the amino acid to bind to mRNA as it39s read 0 Ribosome moves down the strand adding amino acids until it reaches a stop codon o Ribosome leaves mRNA and what39s left of amino acids 0 Posttranslation Modification RERgttransport vesiclegtGolgi complexgt secretory vesicle DNA Replication A Double helix unwinds and splits because of the DNA helicase B DNA polymerase matches the unwound ends with the free nucleotides oating around C DNA ligase links each daughter DNA that now has one new strand and one old one the process is called semiconservative replication Cell Cycle Fig 415 A Mitosis o Prophase nuclear envelope breaks down Centrioles migrate to opposite poles of the cell there are two chromatids per chromosomes 0 Metaphase chromosomes lie along the midline of the cell long microtubules reach out from the centriole to the chromosome and bers of aster attach to plasma membrane Anaphase centromeres divide in two and each is considered separate singlestranded daughter chromosome which are then pulled to opposite poles Telophase chromosomes gather at each pole of cell and nuclear envelopes appears from the RER Cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm into two cells 1 Myosin pulling on micro laments of actin in the terminal web of the cytoskeleton and creates a crease called cleavage furrow around the equator of the cell B Interphase G1 between cell division and DNA replication cell grows carries out tasks for the body S DNA replication G2 interval between DNA replication and cell division Mitosis begins again VI Chromosome and Heredity A The Karyotype The chart of all our chromosomes 3 copies of chromosomes down syndrome Sex chromosomes determine the sex XX is female XY is male Y is smaller than X B Genes and Alleles Alleles different forms of certain genes can be dominant or recessive Genotype the alleles the an individual possesses for a particular trait Phenotype an observable trait C Exceptions Multiple alleles more than yes or no blood type Codominance alleles that are equally dominant Incomplete dominance famial hypercholesterolemia ccgtlethal Ccgt HBP CCgtnormal Polygenic inheritance when two of more genes contribute to a speci c trait eye color Pleiotropy one genes produces multiple traits Sex linkage carried on X and Y chromosome D Mutagens VII Cancer Extra slides Sun radiation A Tumor Benign noncancerous Malignant cancerous may metastasize B Types Carcinoma starts in epithelium Melanoma starts in cells in the skin call melanocytes Sarcoma in the bones or muscles Leukemia in the WBC Lymphoma in the lymph nodes Chapter 5 Notes I The Study of Tissues A Matrix 1 Intercellular material that surrounds the cell 2 Composed of brous proteins and a clear gel a The gel is also known as ground substance or extracellular uid ECF B Embryonic Tissues 1 Primary germ layers gives rise to all the bodies mature tissues a b C Ectoderm gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system Mesoderm eventually turns into mesenchyme and gives rise to muscle bone and blood Endoderm gives rise to the digestive and respiratory tracts II Types ofTissues A Epithelium Shape Relatively at Location Lines and covers the organs Function Protection Types 1 PSA FJ a E7 Simple 0 Simple Squamous 0 Simple Cuboidal 0 Simple Columnar o Pseudostrati ed Columnar Strati ed o Strati ed Squamous o Strati ed Cuboidal o Transitional B Connective Shape Cells bers and ground substance tissue Location Between organs connect different parts Functions binding of organs support physical protection movement storage and 1 2 3 4 6 transport Cells a Fibroblasts b Macrophages c WBCs d Plasma e Mast Cells f Adipocytes Fibers a Collagenous bers b Reticular c Elastic Ground substance C a Glycosaminoglycan GAG play an important role in regulating water and electrolyte balance of tissues b Proteoglycans slows spread of pathogenic organisms c Adhesive glycoproteins bind all components of tissues together 7 Types of connective tissue a Adipose 0 Energy reservoir b Fibrous o Areolar Reticular Elastic Dense regular Dense irregular c Supportive o Cartilage o Hyaline clear glassy and microscopic 0 Elastic elastic bers 0 Fibrocartilage bundles of collagen 0 Bone o Spongy bone and Compact bone d Fluid 0 Blood 0 Erythrocytes Leukocytes Plasma and Platelets Muscular 1 Shape elongated 2 Location see below 3 Function movement because it is able to contract 4 Types a Skeletal bone b Smooth blood vessels and internal organs c Cardiac Heart Nervous 1 Made of neurons and glial cells 2 Shape stellate star 3 Location brain spinal cord and nerves 4 Function communication III Intercellular Iunctions Fig 52 8 A 0 Tight junctions 1 Encircles each cell keeping their uid separated but connected 2 In between epithelial cells Desmosomes 1 A patch that holds cells together like a snap 2 Resist mechanical stress 3 In the heart epidermis and cervix Gap Iunctions 1 Allows cells to communicate pass back and forth messages 2 In the muscles speci cally the intercalated discs of cardiac muscle Chapter 6 Notes 1 Functions of the Skin A Barrier 1 Acidmantle barrier the skins relative dryness and slight acidity keep bacteria and fungus numbers low 2 Water keeps excess water from entering our bodies during swimming and bathing 3 UV rays blocks much of the cancer causing radiation from reaching deeper tissue 4 Chemicals keeps harmful chemicals out B Vitamin D Synthesis the skin carries out rst steps of vitamin D synthesis C Sensation equipped with nerve endings to sense heat cold touch pressure and tissue injury D Thermoregulation heats and retains heat E Nonverbal Communication allows us to have very expressive faces 11 Epidermis A Made of dead cells packed with the protein keratin 1 Cells a Keratinocytes the only cells we see and they synthesize keratin also phagocytize melanin fragments to give color b Melanocytes synthesize melanin and are constantly shedding fragments stratum basale c Merkel cells receptors for the sense of touch stratum basale d Dendritic cells stand guard against toxins and other pathogens that enter the skin and alert immune system stratum granulosum and spinosum B Layers 1 Stratum Basale a a single layer of keratinocytes on the basement membrane b also include melanocytes and Merkel cells 2 Stratum Spinosum a Several layers of keratinocytes and a few dendritic cells b Waterproofs skin by membranecoating vesicles 3 Stratum Granulo sum a 3 to 5 layers of attened keratinocytes b Also waterproof skin 4 Stratum Lucidum a Seen only in thick skin b Contains the protein eleidin which gives rise to keratin c The cells here have no nuclei or other organelles 5 Stratum Corneum a About 30 layers of dead scaly keratinized cells b Exfoliation rids this layer 111 Dermis A Dermal papillae 1 Produce nger prints 2 Keep the epidermis from slipping across the dermis B Layers 1 Papillary Layer a Allows for the mobility of leukocytes and other defenses against organisms that break through the epidermis 2 Reticular Layer a Collagen bundles are thicker here b Stretching of the skin in pregnancy and obesity can tear these bers and cause stretch marks IV Hypodermis A Has more adipose tissue than other layers B Makes up subcutaneous fat V Skin Color A Melanin 1 Everyone has the same amount of melanocytes but the amount of melanin produced differs 2 UV rays stimulate amount growth of melanin from these cells too 3 Types a Eumelaninbrownishblack b Pheomelanin reddishyellow sulfurcontaining pigment B Hemoglobin 1 2 The red color of the blood that is lightened by the dermal collagen bers Lips are red because the blood capillaries are much closer to the surface C Carotene 1 Yellowish tint more prominent in those who eat more egg yolks and yellow and orange vegetables VI Skin Markings A Hemangiomas biIthmarks benign tumors of blood capillaries 1 2 Cavernous hemangiomas brown and at Capillary hemangiomas strawberry and raised B Freckles also moles at melanized patches C Friction Ridges nger prints D Flexion creases leaves crease mark where the point of exion is on a joint VII Hair A Forms 1 2 3 Lanugo found only in fetal development with a little left after birth Vellus thin pale hair constitutes 23s of female body and 110 of male hair Terminal longer coarser and heavily pigmented eyebrows eye lashes and scalp B Structure Fig 67 ewwe Bulb Root Shaft Dermal papilla 0 P F VIII 5731 5 Medulla 6 Cortex 7 Cuticle Color wavy oval straighter circle 1 Brown rich in eumelanin 2 Red rich in pheomelanin with some eumelanin 3 Blonde some pheomelanin and hardly no eumelanin 4 White absence of all usually air in medulla Cycle 1 Anagen stem cellsgtepithelial root sheathgthair matrixgtcells 68 years 2 Catagen apoptosis 23 weeks 3 Telogen it falls out 13 months Types and functions 1 Body hair protect basically never does though 2 Scalp warm the brainskull 3 Puberty axillary facial pubic scentspreaders 4 Guard nose ears protect pathogens from entering 5 Eyebrows facial expression Nails All are clear hard derivatives of the stratum corneum Parts 1 Nail plate includes nail body and nail edge 2 Nail matrix a growth zone at the proximal end of the nail 3 Eponychium cuticle overhang the nail matrix IX Glands A B C Sweat glands 1 Eccrine Merocrine glands a Release sweat to help cool the body b Widely distributed over body surface c Open by coiled ducts onto the skin surface exocytosis d Insensible perspiration thin and salty because NaCl is reabsorbed from the ltrate as it passes through the duct but does not produce noticeable wetness e Diaphoresis sweating with wetness Apocrine glands a Scent glands silky feeling because there are more lipids b Found in areas covered by pubic axillary and male facial hair c Start in a large lumen and open by ducts into hair follicles exocytosis Sebaceous oil glands 1 Oil glands associated with hair follicles 2 Oily secretion called sebum Ceruminous glands 1 Found only in external ear canal 2 Secretion combines sebum with dead epithelial to make cerumen earwax N 3 Water proofs the canal and blocks foreign particles makes hair sticky D Mammary glands 1 Milkproducing glands found in the breasts X Disorders A Cancer 1 Basal cell carcinoma a Most common and seldom metastasizes b Arises from cells in stratum basale and eventually invades the dermis Squamous cell carcinoma N a Arises from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum b If it goes unnoticed or is neglected it is likely to metastasize to lymph nodes very fatal 3 Malignant melanoma a Arises from melanocytes often in a preexisting mole b ABCD Asymmetrical Border Color Diameter B Burns most death results from uid loss infection and toxic tissue death of eschar First degree a Only the epidermis is burned b Most sunburns Second degree a All of epidermis and part of dermis also called partialthickness burns b Some sunburns and scalds Third degree a All of epidermis and dermis and sometimes deeper tissues allthickness burns b Fire and some toxins Treatment a Fluid replacement and infection control C Skin Color Cyanosis a When there is not enough oxygen in the circulating blood turning the skin bluish Erythema a Abnormal redness of the skin b Happens during exercise exposure to heat sunburn anger and embarrassment Pallor a Pale or ashen color when there is little or no blood ow to the skin b Occurs during stress low blood pressure cold weather severe anemia and circulatory shock Albinism a Lack of melanin resulting in milky skin tone white hair and bluegray eyes b Must have two homozygous recessive genes 1 N W P 1 N W 1 Chapter 7 Notes I Skeletal System II A Functions Support Protection Movement Electrolyte balance stores calcium and phosphate ions Acidbase balance buffers blood against extreme pH changes Blood formation red marrow is the producer of blood cells Shapes of Bones Long longer than they are wide a Diaphysis compact bone with a medually cavity b Epiphysis spongy bone at the ends of the bone and surrounded by articular cartilage c Periosteum covers external diaphysis helps connect muscletendons to bone d Epiphyseal plate allows bones to grow and when it closes in becomes a line Short usually equal in length and width Flat enclose and protect soft organs a Compactspongycompact bone sandwich Irregular elaborate shapes that do not t any of the categories above Inside the Bones A Cells shoves sz P3 5 P 1 0steogenic cells undifferentiated stem cells that go onto become osteoblasts 2 0steoblasts boneforming cells 3 0steocytes osteoblasts that have become trapped in the matrix and reside in tiny cavities called lacunae 0steogenicgtosteoblastsgt0steocytes 4 0steoclasts bonedissolving cells B The Matrix 1 13 organic and includes a proteoglycans b glycoproteins c collagen 2 23 inorganic material a 85 hydroxyapatite crystallized calcium phosphate salt b 10 calcium carbonate C Compact Bone 1 Lamellae layers of matrix that surrounds a central canal and connected with each other by canaliculi 2 0steons the central canal and its lamellae 3 Volkmann canals along their length central canals are joined by these diagonal passages contain blood vessels and nerves D Spongy Bone 1 Trabeculae thin plates that make up the framework 2 Constituted by spaces lled with marrow 3 Light but strong E Bone Marrow 1 Red marrow a Produces blood cells 2 Yellow marrow a Red marrow that turns to fat but if necessary it can turn back into red marrow 3 Gelatinous marrow is only found in elderly populations and is more thick 111 Development A Intramembranous 0ssi cation at bones 1 Mesenchyme turns into a layer of soft tissue then differentiate into osteogenic cells and a network of soft sheets called trabeculae 2 Osteogenic cells differentiate into osteoblasts and deposit osteoid tissue then some become trapped in the matrix and become osteocytes 3 0steoblasts continue to make spongy bone while osteoclasts absorb and remodel others to form a marrow cavity 4 Trabeculae calcify and spongy bone on external surface in turns into compact bone B Endochondral 0ssi cation most other bones 1 Mesenchyme develops into a body of hyaline cartilage in the place of the future bone 2 Perichondrium turns into Periosteum chondrocytes form 1st ossi cation center 3 Primary marrow cavity forms along with osteoblasts and osteoclasts 2ml ossi cation center forms metaphysis present 4 2m1 marrow cavity forms C Bone Growth and Remodeling 1 Elongation a Zones of growth 0 Reserve cartilage typical hyaline cartilage Cell proliferation where chondrocytes multiply and arrange in longitudinal columns of attened lacunae Cell hypertrophy no more division but they start to enlarge Calci cation hardening of the cartilage Bone deposition chondrocytes die and blood vessels and marrow invade the new bone b Interstitial growth is the result of cartilage growth from within by multiplying chondrocytes and deposition of new matrix in the interior 2 Widening and thickening a Appositional growth the declaration of new tissue at the surface IV Physiology A Mineral Deposition and Resorption 1 Calcium and Phosphate a Deposition blood to bone hydroxyapatite crystals form and calcium carbonate is deposited osteoblasts begin the process by laying down collagen bers the bers then become encrusted with minerals hydroxyapatite and allow the salts to precipitate in the bone matrix O O O O b Resorption bone to blood the low pH ofbone causes it to dissolve minerals back into the blood B Calcium Homeostasis 1 Importance a Communication between cells b Necessary for muscle contractions c With cAMP it39s a secondmessenger system 2 Disorders a Hypocalcemia leads to tetany b Hypercalcemia causes nerve and muscle cells to become less excitable 3 Calcitriol a Most active form of Vitamin D b Raises the blood calcium concentration by 0 Increasing calcium absorption by the small intestines and kidneys o Stimulates stem cells to differentiate into osteoclasts which sends calcium and phosphate ions to blood Calcitonin Fig 718a a Secreted by the thyroid gland when blood calcium levels are to high b Plays an important role in children but has a very weak result in adults because the osteoclasts are highly active in children for remodeling c Fixes the problem by 0 0steoclasts inhibition keeps them from taking calcium away from the skeleton and putting it into the blood 0 0steoblasts stimulation deposits more calcium into the skeleton 5 Parathyroid Hormone PTH Fig 718b a Secreted by parathyroid gland b Raises blood calcium level by 0 Promoting calcium reabsorption by the kidneys o Inhibits collagen synthesis by osteoblasts o Raises osteoclasts population 0 Promotes the nal step of calcitriol synthesis in the kidneys C Phosphate Homeostasis 1 Importance a Essential molecular component present in nucleic acid and ATP b pH controller 2 blood levels a calcitriol raises the levels b PTH lowers them D Other hormones 1 Estrogen 1gt a Stimulates osteoblasts and adolescent growth prevents osteoporosis 2 Testosterone a Stimulates osteoblasts and promotes protein synthesis thus promoting growing and epiphyseal closure V Healing of fractures A Hematoma formation and granulation tissue 1 Blood vessels are severed and a clot begins to form while broblast osteogenic cells and osteoclasts invade tissue all of the invasion makes blood clot form granulation tissue B Soft callus formation 1 0steogenic cells become chondroblasts and produce patches of Fibrocartilage called soft callus C Hard callus 1 0steoblasts produce a bony collar called hard callus that takes 4 to 6 weeks to form D Remodeling 1 0steoclasts dissolve small fragments of broken bone and osteoblasts deposit spongy bone to bridge the gap between the broken ends the spongy bone gradually lls to become compact bone VI Osteoporosis A Severe loss in bone density B Most common in postmenopausal women C Estrogenreplacement therapy ERTj increases the risk of breast cancer but may work in some women Chapter 8 Notes 1 Bone Facts Table 81 and 82 Fig 88 and 821 A At birth 270 bones B Adult 206 bones C Sesamoid bones bones that forms with tendons because of stress knee cap 11 The Skull A Sinuses Fig 88 1 Sphenoid 2 Ethmoid 3 Frontal 4 Maxillary 03 Cranial Bones 1 The bones do not come in direct contact with the brain a 3 meninges are between brain tissue and cranium 2 Cranium Parts a Calvaria the roof and the walls of cranium b Base the oor of skull Fig 89 o Anterior cranial fossa holds frontal lobes of the brain 0 Middle cranial fossa holds temporal lobes o Posterior cranial fossa holds the posterior part of the brain cerebellum 3 Temporal parts Squamous relatively at and vertical Tympanic the small ring of bone that borders the external acoustic meatus Mastoid the prominent lump behind the earlobe posterior to the tympanic part d Petrous on the deeper side of the bone houses middle and inner ear cavities 9amp7 C Facial Bones 14 H N Alveolar a Processes Grow into the spaces between the teeth b Sockets hold the teeth c Incisive foramen in the middle directly behind the two front teeth Mandible a The only one that can move noticeably b Provides attachment for muscle for mastication and facial expression D Associated with skull 1 2 Hyoid in the neck Auditory 0ssicles a Malleus hammer b Incus anvil c Stapes stirup III Vertebrae and Thoracic A Vertebrae 33 1 5quot P 9quot Newborn cshaped curve a Lifts its head while crawling cervical region becomes curved b Begins walking lumbar curve c Thus creates the Sshaped curve 7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacrum 4 coccyx Intervertebral discs Fig 822b a And inner gelatinous nucleus pulposus surrounded by a ring of brocartilage annulus brosus b Herniated discs when excessive stress cracks the annulus causing the nucleus to ooze out Intervertebral foramen allows for spinal nerves to break out and go to the rest of the body Regional Characteristics a C1 atlas supports the head in a manner reminiscent of the Titan of Greek mythology who Zeus made carry the world on his shoulders C2 axis Allows rotation of the head as in gesturing no C7 forms a prominent bump in the back of the neck T112 all have ribs branching off 515 begin to fuse around age 16 f Col4 fused by the age of 30 QED9amp7 B Ribs 12 pairs 1 True ribs 17 each have their own coastal cartilages connecting them to the sternum 2 False ribs 812 lack independent cartilages connections to sternum a 810 the coastal cartilage is swept upward and attached to rib 739s cartilage b 11 and 12 oating ribs attach to nothing IV Upper Limb 30 per limb A Brachium humerus B Antebrachium radius and ulna attached along their shaft by a ligament called interosseous membrane IM C Carpus 8 small bones D Manus 19 bones 5 metacarpals 14 phalanges V Lower Limb 30 per limb A Femoral femur B Crural tibia and bulaattached along their shaft by a ligament called interosseous membrane IM Tarsal treated as part of the foot Pedal 26 bones 7 tarsal 5 metatarsal 14 phalanges 1 Medial longitudinal arch ligament from the heel to hallux 2 Lateral longitudinal arch ligament from heel to little toe 3 Transverse arch ligament attaching proximal heads of metatarsals a Pes planus at feet if stress or excessive weight is put on these ligament they can be stretched VI Human vs primate U A Feet 1 They can39t support weight for a long time because their feet are at B Legs 1 Theirs are more straight up and down ours are more angled so we are able to lock our knees and take pressure off the muscles C Spine 1 Ours is Sshaped there is C D Skull 1 Their foramen magnum is more posterior ours is more medial allowing us to support our head upright Chapter 9 Notes I Joints and classi cation A Definitions 1 Kinesiology study of musculoskeletal movement 2 Arthrology science of joint structure function and dysfunction 3 Biomechanics movement and mechanical processes in the body B Classes 1 Bonyjoints a Immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossi es and they become one ex the right and left frontal bone in newborns 2 Fibrous joints 11 a When adjacent bones are bound by collagen bers that emerge from one bone over the space between them and penetrate into another bone b 3 types 0 Sutures immovable or only slightly moveable brous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other 0 Serrate wavy lines in which bones interlock with one another ex Lamboid suture 0 Lap overlapping diagonal edges ex Squamous suture o Plane straight non overlapping edges ex Middle palatine suture Gomphoses the attachment of a tooth to its socket and held in place by a brous periodontal ligament that allows the tooth to move under stress of chewing Syndesmoses bound by longer collagen bers to allow more mobility ex Tibia and bula and the radius and ulna Interosseous Membrane 3 Cartilaginous joints a Two bones that are linked by cartilage b 2 types 0 Synchondroses bones bound by hyaline cartilage ex The rst rib to the sternum O O O Symphyses two bones joined by brocartilage ex Pubic symphysis which is joined by interpubic discs 4 Synovial joints a Most complex joints and discussed below 11 Synovial joints A Anatomy 1 The facing surfaces are covered with articular cartilage hyaline cartilage 2 In between these bones is an articular cavity that contains a slippery lubricant called synovial uid that is rich in albumin protein and hyaluric acid 3 An articular capsule encloses the cavity to retain the uid 4 Many have a pad called articular discs that cover the entire surface of each end of the bones for extra support but in the knee there is one but it does not connect all the way across meniscus brocartilage 5 Accessory structures a Tendons Collagenous connective tissue that attaches muscles to bone b Ligament Collagenous connective tissue that attaches bone to bone c Bursae a sac lled with synovial uid where a tendon passes over a bone or between skin and bone to help tendons slide more easily over the joints d Tendon sheaths cylinder of connective tissue that wraps around a tendon Lever systems 573 1 Rotates around a xed point called a fulcrum joint has a lever long bone and a resistance arm effort muscle 2 Rotation occurs when effort overcomes resistance 3 Mechanical advantage MA LeLr
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