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Professionalism in Computing

by: Earlene Cremin III

Professionalism in Computing CPSC 3165

Marketplace > Columbus State University > ComputerScienence > CPSC 3165 > Professionalism in Computing
Earlene Cremin III

GPA 3.91

Edward Bosworth

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Edward Bosworth
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Earlene Cremin III on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CPSC 3165 at Columbus State University taught by Edward Bosworth in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/221202/cpsc-3165-columbus-state-university in ComputerScienence at Columbus State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site ACM Code of Ethics 1 General Moral Imperatives As an ACM member I will 11 Contribute to society and human well being This principle concerning the quality of life of all people affirms an obligation to protect fundamental human rights and to respect the diversity of all cultures An essential aim of computing professionals is to minimize negative consequences of computing systems including threats to health and safety When designing or implementing systems computing professionals must attempt to ensure that the products of their efforts will be used in socially responsible ways will meet social needs and will avoid harmful effects to health and welfare In addition to a safe social environment human wellbeing includes a safe natural environment Therefore computing professionals who design and develop systems must be alert to and make others aware of any potential damage to the local or global environment 12 Avoid harm to others quotHarmquot means injury or negative consequences such as undesirable loss of information loss of property property damage or unwanted environmental impacts This principle prohibits use of computing technology in ways that result in harm to any of the following users the general public employees employers Harmful actions include intentional destruction or modification of files and programs leading to serious loss of resources or unnecessary expenditure of human resources such as the time and effort required to purge systems of computer viruses Wellintended actions including those that accomplish assigned duties may lead to harm unexpectedly in such an event the responsible person or persons are obligated to undo or mitigate the negative consequences as much as possible One way to avoid unintentional harm is to carefully consider potential impacts on all those affected by decisions made during design and implementation To minimize the possibility of indirectly harming others computing professionals must minimize malfunctions by following generally accepted standards for system design and testing Furthermore it is often necessary to assess the social consequences of systems to project the likelihood of any serious harm to others If system features are misrepresented to users coworkers or supervisors the individual computing professional is responsible for any resulting injury In the work 39 the r r f 39 39 has the additional obligation to report any signs of system dangers that might result in serious personal or social damage If one s superiors do not act to curtail or mitigate such dangers it may be necessary to quotblow the whistlequot to help correct the problem or reduce the risk However capricious or misguided reporting of violations can itself be harmful Before reporting violations all relevant aspects of the incident must be thoroughly assessed in particular the assessment of risk and responsibility must be credible it is suggested that advice be sought from other computing professionals See principle 25 regarding thorough evaluations Page 1 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007 ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site 13 Be honest and trustworthy Honesty is an essential component of trust Without trust an organization cannot function effectively The honest computing professional will not make deliberately false or deceptive claims about a system or system design but will instead provide full disclosure of all pertinent system limitations and problems A computer professional has a duty to be honest about his or her own qualifications and about any circumstances and might lead to con icts of interest Membership in volunteer organizations such as ACM may at times place individuals in situations where their statements or actions could be interpreted as carrying the quotweightquot of a larger group of professionals An ACM member will exercise care to not misrepresent ACM or positions and policies of ACM or any ACM units 14 Be fair and take action not to discriminate The values of equality tolerance respect for others and the principles of equal justice govern this imperative Discrimination on the basis of race sex religion age disability national origin or other such factors is an explicit violation of ACM policy and will not be tolerated Inequities between different groups of people may result from the use misuse of information and technology in a fair society all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate in or benefit from the use of computer resources regardless of race sex religion age disability national origin or other such similar factors However these ideals do not justify unauthorized use of computer resources nor do they provide an adequate basis for violation of any other ethical imperatives of this code 15 Honor property rights including copyrights and patents Violation of copyrights patents trade secrets and the terms of license agreements is prohibited by law in most circumstances Even when software is not so protected such violations are contrary to professional behavior Copies of software should be made only with proper authorization Unauthorized duplication of materials must not be condoned 16 Give proper credit for intellectual property Computing professionals are obligated to protect the integrity of intellectual property Specifically one must not take credit for other s ideas or work even in cases where the work has not been explicitly protected for example by copyright or patent Page 2 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007 ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site 17 Respect the privacy of others Computing and communication technology enables the collection and exchange of personal information on a scale unprecedented in the history of civilization Thus there is increased potential for violating the privacy of individuals and groups It is the responsibility of professionals to maintain the privacy and integrity of data describing individuals This includes taking precautions to ensure the accuracy of data as well as protecting it from unauthorized access or accidental disclosure to inappropriate individuals Furthermore procedures must be established to allow individuals to review their records and correct inaccuracies This imperative implies that only the necessary amount of personal information be collected in a system that retention and disposal periods for that information be clearly defined and enforced and that personal information gathered for a specific purpose not be used for other purposes without consent of the individuals These principles apply to electronic communications including electronic mail and prohibit procedures that capture or monitor electronic user data including messages without the permission of users or bona fide authorization related to system operation and maintenance User data observed during the normal duties of system operation and maintenance must be treated with strictest confidentiality except in cases where it is evidence for the violation of law organizational regulations or this code in these cases the nature or contents of that information must be disclosed only to proper authorities See 19 18 Honor Con dentiality The principle of honesty extends to issues of confidentiality of information whenever one has made an explicit promise to honor confidentiality or implicitly when private information not directly related to the performance of one s duties becomes available The ethical concern is to respect all obligations of confidentiality to employers clients and users unless discharged from such obligations by requirements of the law or other principles of this Code 2 More Speci c Professional Responsibilities As an ACM computing professional Iwill 21 Strive to achieve the highest quality effectiveness and dignity in both the process and products of professional work Excellence is perhaps the most important obligation of a professional The computing professional must strive to achieve quality and to be cognizant of the serious negative consequences that may result from poor quality in a system 22 Acquire and maintain professional competence Excellence depends on individuals who take responsibility for acquiring and maintaining professional competence A professional must participate in setting standards for appropriate levels of competence and strive to achieve those standards upgrading technical knowledge and competence can be achieved in several ways doing independent study attending seminars conferences or courses and being involved in professional organizations Page 3 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007 ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site 23 Know and respect existing laws pertaining to professional work ACM members must obey existing local state province national and international laws unless there is a compelling ethical basis not to do so Policies and procedures of the organization in which one participates must also be obeyed But compliance must be balanced with the recognition that sometimes existing laws and rules may be immoral or inappropriate and therefore must be challenged Violation of a law or regulation may be ethical when that law or rule has inadequate moral basis or when it con icts with another law judged to be more important If one decides to violate law or rule because it is viewed as unethical or for any other reason one must fully accept responsibility for one s actions and for the consequences 24 Accept and provide appropriate professional review Quality professional work especially in the computing profession depends on professional reviewing and critiquing Whenever appropriate individual members should seek and utilize peer review as well as provide critical review of the work of others 25 Give comprehensive and thorough evaluations of computer systems and their impacts including analysis of possible risks Computer professionals must strive to be perceptive thorough and objective when evaluating recommending and presenting system descriptions and alternatives Computer professionals are in a position of special trust and therefore have a special responsibility to provide object credible evaluations to employers clients users and the public When providing evaluations the professional must also identify any relevant con icts of interest as stated in imperative 13 As noted in the discussion of principle 12 on avoiding harm any signs of danger from systems must be reported to those who have opportunity and or responsibility to resolve them See the guidelines for imperative 12 for more details concerning harm including the reporting of professional violations Page 4 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007 ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site 26 Honor contracts agreements and assigned responsibilities Honoring one s commitments is a matter of integrity and honesty For the computer professional this includes ensuring that system elements perform as intended Also when one contracts for work with another party one has an obligation to keep that party properly informed about progress toward completing that work A computing professional has a responsibility to request a change in any assignment that he or she feels cannot be completed as defined Only after serious consideration and with full disclosure of risks and concerns to the employer or client should one accept the assignment The major underlying principle here is the obligation to accept personal accountability for professional work On some occasions other ethical principles may take the greater priority A judgment that a specific assignment should not be performed may not be accepted Having clearly identified one s concerns and reasons for that judgment but failing to procure a change in that assignment one may yet be obligated by contract or by law to proceed as directed The computing professional s ethical judgment should be the nal guide in deciding whether or not to proceed Regardless of the decision one must accept the responsibility for the consequences However performing assignments quotagainst one s own judgmentquot does not relieve the professional of responsibility for any negative consequences 27 Improve public understanding of computing and its consequences Computing professionals have a responsibility to share technical knowledge with the public by 39 J J39 o r 39 including the impacts of computer systems and their limitations This imperative implies an obligation to counter any false views related to computing 28 Access computing and communication resources only when authorized to do so Theft or destruction of tangible and electronic property is prohibited by imperative 12 quotAvoid harm to othersquot Trespassing includes accessing communication networks and computer systems or communication system is J by this 39 I quot T J 39 includes accessing communication networks and computer systems or accounts and or files associated with those systems without explicit authorization to do so Individuals and organizations have the right to restrict access to their systems so long as they do not violate the discrimination principle see 14 No one should enter or use another39s computing system software or data files without permission One must always have appropriate approval before using system resources including communication ports file space other system peripherals and computer time Page 5 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007 ACM Code of Ethics Adapted from the ACM Web Site 3 Organizational Leadership Imperatives As an ACM member and an organizational leader I will 31 Articulate social responsibilities of members of an organizational unit and encourage full acceptance of those responsibilities Because organizations of all kinds have impacts on the public they must accept responsibilities to society Organizational procedures and attitudes oriented toward quality and the welfare of society will reduce harm to members of the public thereby serving public interest and ful lling social responsibility Therefore organizational leaders must encourage full participation in meeting social responsibilities as well as quality performance 32 Manage personnel and resources to design and build information systems that enhance the quality of working life Organizational leaders are responsible for ensuring that computer systems enhance not degrade the quality of working life When implementing a computer system organizations must consider the personal and professional development physical safety and human dignity of all workers Appropriate humancomputer ergonomic standards should be considered in system design and in the workplace 33 Acknowledge and support proper and authorized uses of an organization39s computing and communications resources Because computer systems can become tools to harm as well to benefit an organization the leadership has the responsibility to clearly define appropriate and inappropriate uses of organizational computing resources While the number and scope of such rules should be minimal they should be fully enforced when established 34 Ensure that users and those who will be affected by a system have their needs clearly articulated during the assessment and design of requirements later the system must be validated to meet requirements Current system users potential users and other persons whose lives may be affected by a system must have their needs assessed and incorporated in the statement of requirements System validation should ensure compliance with those requirements 35 Articulate and support policies that protect the dignity of users and others affected by a computing system Designing or implementing systems that deliberately or inadvertently demean individuals or groups is ethically unacceptable Computer professionals who are in decisionmaking positions should verify that systems are designed and implemented to protect personal privacy and enhance personal dignity Page 6 of 7 pages Adapted on August 30 2007


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