Clinical Psychology PSYC 3145
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lottie Streich on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3145 at Columbus State University taught by Harvey Richman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/221217/psyc-3145-columbus-state-university in Psychlogy at Columbus State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 17 These are the same important terms and ideas that are summarized at the end of the chapter Additional information that I39ve added to these will be in italicized text l have also added additional important terms and ideas at the end of the alphabetical list As you study pay particular attention to 1 the definitions for which the titles appear in BOLD print 2 the italicized information I39ve added and 3 the additional terms I39ve added at the bottom of the list These are the most important ideas and the ones most likely to appear on the exams Behavioral Medicine A broad interdisciplinary eld of research education and practice that integrates the behavioral sciences with the discipline of medicine Biofeedback A wide array of procedures through which a patient learns to modify or control certain physiological processes Usually the physiological process of interest is monitored by an apparatus and the information is fed back to the patient in the form of an auditory tactile or visual signal The patient then attempts to modify the signal and thus change the physiological response using a variety oftechniques An expensive technique because ofthe equipment and training involved Some claim it is more effective than simple relaxation training while others believe it is more placebo effect than anything else Biopsychosocial Model A theoretical model that holds that health and illness are a function of biological eg genetic predispositions nutritional deficiencies psychological eg the individual39s cognitions and emotions and social eg friends and family life events influences In other words the model recognizes that 1 genetic predispositions 2 stressors life events and 3 cognitions interpretations of events all can affect health CognitiveBehavioral Methods Techniques that emphasize the role ofthinking in the etiology and maintenance of problems and attempt to modify the patterns of thinking that are believed to contribute to a patient39s problem Several cognitivebehavioral treatments for stress or other health problems appear on the current list of empirically validated supported psychological treatments Contingency Contracting An operant method in which a therapist and patient draw up a formal agreement that specifies the behaviors that are desired or undesired as well as the consequences for engaging in or failing to engage in these behaviors Controlled Drinking A controversial approach to the treatment of alcohol problems that has as its goal light to moderate drinking Clients are taught to monitortheir alcohol intake closely and to develop coping responses that do not involve drinking Coping Appraisal In protection motivation theory the evaluation of one39s ability to successfully avoid or cope with negative outcomes If one concludes that one is unlikely to cope effectively by refraining from an undesired behavior one will be more likely to engage in the behavior Coping Model An individual who demonstrates effective coping in a stressful situation eg preparing for a medical procedure or surgery Observing or playing a tape of such a model may be useful for individuals who are about to experience similar procedures Coronary Heart Disease A disease that involves damage to the heart muscle and is due to de cient blood supply Extinction The elimination of an undesired conditioned response by creating a situation in which the conditioned stimulus is no longer associated with the environmental stimulus that initially generated the response Stop ringing the bell before feeding the dog and the dog will gradually stop salivating to the sound of the bell Health Behavior Model A theoretical model that proposes that the relationship between a hostile predisposition and health is mediated by the performance or lack of performance of health behaviors rather than by the physiological aspects of stress Health Psychology A specialty area within psychology that applies the tools of the discipline to the prevention of illness the enhancement and maintenance of health the identification ofthe correlates of illness and health the treatment of individuals in the health care system and the formulation of health care policy Operant Conditioning The principle whereby behaviors that are reinforced tend to recur whereas behaviors that are not reinforced or are punished tend to decrease in frequency Prevention In health psychology the idea that by performing a few simple behaviors consistently eg exercising avoiding smoking using seat belts people may dramatically reduce their risk for health problems and may signi cantly reduce health care costs Procedural Information Descriptions ofwhat will actually occur when one undergoes a stressful medical procedure In preparing people for stressful situation such as medical procedures ithas been found that a combination of both procedural information what will be done and sensory 39 quot what one will 39 7is most effective in reducing patient stress Interestingly and as is all too often the case in everyday practice not much of eitheris really given Protection Motivation Theory A model of health behavior that posits that behavior is a function of both quot hreat appraisa quot and quotcoping appraisa One s risk for engaging in health threatening behaviors is a function of 1 one s appraisal of how dangerous the behavioris and 2 appraisal of one s ability to avoid or cope with the potential negative outcome Psychophysiological Reactivity Model This model ofthe link between hostility and health posits that hostile individuals experience larger increases in heart rate blood pressure and stressrelated hormones in response to potential stressors Increased psychophysiological reactivity is believed to encourage the development of coronary artery disease and the symptoms of coronary heart disease Psychosocial Vulnerability Model This model of the link between hostility and health proposes that hostile individuals are more likely to experience a more stressful psychosocial environment because they have higher levels of mistrust and are scanning their environments for possible future mistreatment Psychosomatic Medicine A eld popular in the 1940s and 1950s but currently out of vogue that is based on the assumption that certain illnesses and disease states are caused by psychological factors Some adherents believed that each quotpsychosomaticquot illness corresponded to a speci c unconscious conflict that predisposed the patient to that illness Relapse Prevention A range of strategies for preventing relapse usually in the context of treating the addictive behaviors Patients are directed to anticipate problem situations and are taught coping skills to navigate their way through these situations without engaging in the undesired behavior Or in the event ofa lapse patients are taught how to respond so as to prevent a total relapse Relaxation A state of lowered anxiety stress and physiological arousal Relaxation may be induced in a number ofways and it appears to be effective in the treatment ofa number of health concerns SelfEfficacy People39s beliefs about their capacity to control or gain mastery over the events that affect them This construct plays a prominent role in most socialcognitive models of health behavior SelfMonitoring Record A record often employed in cognitivebehavioral treatments on which individuals monitorthe occurrence ofa certain emotional response including the situation that triggered it the strength of the emotions any physical or behavioral reactions and their thinking processes at the time By examining the data collected the therapist may draw connections between certain situations and the patient39s thoughts emotions and behaviors and may ultimately tailor specific treatment interventions Sensory Information Descriptions ofthe sensations that will be encountered when one undergoes a stressful medical procedure Social Support The number and quality ofone39s social relationships Several studies have shown that social support is positively associated with better health outcomes Many studies show that social support like beinq married and havinq friends acts to insulate one from stressful events Additionally women seem to have more social supports and bene t more from them than do men Stress A process that involves an environmental event a stressor its appraisal by the individual is it challenging or threatening the various responses ofthe organism physiological emotional cognitive behavioral and the reevaluations that occur as a result of these responses and changes in the stressor Sympathetic Nervous System The portion ofthe nervous system that is responsible for mobilizing body resources in urgent situations Prolonged sympathetic activation can have adverse effects on body organs mental functions and the immune system Systematic Desensitization A respondent method for reducing anxiety in which patients practice relaxation while visualizing anxietyprovoking situations of increasing intensity This technique is based on the principle that one cannot be relaxed and anxious simultaneously Threat Appraisal ln protection motivation theory the evaluation of negative factors eg the potential for harm that affect the likelihood ofengaging in a particular behavior If one concludes that there is little immediate threat to oneself one will be more likely to engage in the behavior Transactional Model Of Stress A model that views stress as a process that involves an environmental event its appraisal as threatening or benign by the individual the individual39s physiological emotional cognitive and behavioral responses to the event and the reappraisal of the event that occurs secondary to the person39s responses as well as to changes in the stressor Current transactional nteractionist view eg Rice 1998 sees stress as involving 1 an event 2 appraisal ofthe event 3 reaction or response to the event and 4 subsequent reappraisal ofthe situation see Figure 17 1 Type A Behavior Pattern A personality pattern that has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease Among other things Type A individuals exhibit a great sense of time urgency work near maximum capacity even when there is no time deadline become aggressive and hostile when frustrated and are motivated to master their environments and to maintain control Friedman and Rosenman 1974 reported that a pattern including a sense oftime being short being a workaholic being aggressive and hostile and strongly needing to stay in control was predictive of cardiovascular heart disease This was later proven incorrect Recent research suggests thatit is the aggressive and hostility component speci cally that is predictive of heart disease Below are some additional ideas and terms from Chapter 17 you should know Health Care Costs in the US account for about 15 ofthe gross domestic product GDP Further the greater part of these costs are attributable to chronic and often stressrelated conditions Cigarette smoking one of our biggest health risks Men are quitting at higher rates than are women Relapse rates for those who quit are amazingly high 70 80 Keeping adolescents from starting the habit is the best solution Research suggests that the best approach is to focus on short term consequences such as possible peer rejection as opposed to long term health consequences which adolescents may not be able to relate to Obesity Simply put we are too heavy 10 to 25 of children are obese and there is an 80 probability that these obese children will have obesity problems as adults Cancer Rates Ethnicity and Outcome African Americans have relatively high rates of cancer while Latinos native Americans and Chinese Americans have lower rates and better
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