Auto Transmissions AT 241
Community College of Philadelphia
Popular in Course
Popular in Automotive Technology
This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Zena McCullough on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AT 241 at Community College of Philadelphia taught by Richard Saxton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/221224/at-241-community-college-of-philadelphia in Automotive Technology at Community College of Philadelphia.
Reviews for Auto Transmissions
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/11/15
Chapter 6 Torque Converters and Oil Pumps Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Classroom Manual Objectives Shop Manual Objectives Identify the major components in a torque o Diagnose torque converter problems and converter and explain their purpose determine needed repairs Have a basic understanding of the uid 0 Perform a stall test and determine needed ows that occur in a torque converter repairs Explain the necessity of curved blades to 0 Perform converter clutch system tests and enhance torque converter ef ciency determine needed repairs Discuss stator design and operation 0 Diagnose hydraulically and electrically Explain how uid ows in and out of a controlled torque converter clutches torque converter 0 Inspect converter llex plate converter attaching bolts converter pilot and converter pump drive surfaces Measure torque converter end play and check for interference Explain torque converter operation in the stall and coupling phases Explain the basic design and operation of standard and torque converters with a clutch 0 Check the stator clutch Describe the design and operation of a 0 Check a torque converter and centrifugal torque converter clutch transmission cooling system for contamination Describe the design and operation of a pistontype converter clutch Inspect leak test ush and replace Explain the operation of typical electronic C eri nest andmnngs39 controls for a converter clutch 0 Inspect measure and replace an oil pump Name and explain the different designs of assembly and related Components pumps used in modern transmissions Overview This chapter in both manuals covers the operation of torque converters The chapters also discuss the testing procedures and hydraulic and electrical theories that apply to the tests needed for senice to the torque converter Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 147192 Shop Manual pages 253286 39 Terms to Know Ballooning Geartype pumps Rotortype pump Converter capacity Guide rings Sheaves Coupling phase Heat exchanger Stall speed Crescent lsolator springs Stator Damper lXpump Vacuum transducer EMCC MCCC Vanetype pump Failsafe valve Mineral spirits Variable capacity pumps Fixed displacement pump Pulse width VCC Frequency Reactor Vortex flow Rotary flow Lecture Outline and Notes Objectives Review the chapter s objectives Introduction A Discuss the history of the torque converter B Discuss torque converter operations C Discuss the constantvariable transmission General Diagnostics A Discuss the effect of poor engine performance on transmission operations B Explain the importance of using service manuals when diagnosing and testing a torque converter C Discuss methods to isolate engine problems from transmission and torque converter problems D Discuss methods to isolate exhaust problems from torque converter problems Torque Converters A Fluid Couplings 1 Discuss the members of a fluid coupling 2 Explain how the fluid coupling operates B Torque Converters Discuss the purpose of the three members of a converter Explain how a torque converter works Describe the different fluid flows that take place inside a torque converter 9N9 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E lt S V VIII IX C Mounting Describe the mounting ofthe torque converter D Construction Describe the construction of the torque converter Torque Converter Operation A Operation of the Torque Converter 1 Explain torque multiplication with a torque converter 2 Discuss the coupling phases B Design Considerations 1 Explain the stall speed of a torque converter 2 Explain converter capacity Stall Testing A Discuss methods of stall testing B Explain the precautions to be followed Bench Testing A Visual Inspection Discuss converter inspection while installed Explain the method of checking forloose fasteners and missing weights Discuss converter ballooning and evidence and causes of the problem Discuss inspection of the converter for overheating B Measurements 1 Explain the method of measuring correct converter installation 2 Discuss inspection and measuring ofthe explate 3 Explain the purpose for checking llexplate and converter runout 4 Discuss the proper method of measuring runout C Fluid Considerations 1 Explain how to inspect and measure the oil pump bushing 2 Discuss testing for converterleaks D Converter Service Discuss converter removal Explain the methods of repairing the threads oflugs and studs Discuss the methods of correcting minor damage to the converter hub N9 59 Nf Discuss the removal and installation ofthe starter ring gear 5 Cleaning Discuss the proper method of cleaning and ushing a converter Torque Converter Replacement Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E gtlt X A Discuss the factors that would require converter removal B Describe the general procedures for removal and preremoval measuring Direct Drive Define direct drive and direct drive devices Explain centrifugal lockup Explain hydraulic lockup Describe the operation of a viscous clutch Explain the use of a clutch assembly in a torque converter moomgt Converter Control Circuits A Early Systems Discuss the operation and components of early nonintegrated converter clutch systems B NonOBD Systems 1 Brie y explain how these early systems functioned within a limited computercontrolled transmission 2 Describe the components that typically make up this type of system C OBD Systems 1 Discuss how the converter clutch is now an integrated part of the powertrain control system 2 Describe the components that typically make up this type of system General Converter Control Diagnostics A Control Circuit Checks Explain basic inspection Discuss electronic selfdiagnosis Discuss the guidelines for inspection of a converter and clutch Explain DTC retrieval and use Discuss a typical TCC diagnostic routine B LockUp Converter Testing 1 Discuss general converter control diagnosis 2 Discuss the methods of testing the lockup clutch lectronic Converter Clutch Control Diagnostics Describe OBD ll requirements Discuss the mandated standard service procedures Discuss J1930 Explain snapshot importance in diagnosing problems Discuss the DLC and the new use of the MIL Explain the purpose of each character of the mandated DTCs Describe the interaction of the PCM and TCM 9159 0 l39l39l NQF rbp Nf Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E XIII XIV XV XV Testing Converter Clutches Explain the method for checking converter clutch friction material Pumps A Discuss the oil pump drive system B Discuss the general operation of the oil pump C Describe geartype oil pump operation D Explain rotortype oil pump operation E Discuss vanetype oil pump operation F Describe the operation of variable capacity pumps Oil Pump Service A Describe the general disassemny of the oil pump B Describe the inspection ofthe oil pump C Discuss measuring procedures D Describe the reassembly procedure Transmission Cooler Service A Explain when the uid circulates from the torque converter to the cooler B Explain why the uid gets hot inside a converter C Discuss why the uid must be cooled and how this happens Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 6 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 192194 Short Answer Essays A CVT uses an electromagnetic clutch to transfer torque from the engine to the transmission Its operation is controlled by a clutch control unit The clutch control unit switches current to energize and de energize the electromagnetic clutch in response to inputs from various sensors These sensors include a brake switch accelerator pedal switches and an inhibitor switch The brake switch de energizes the clutch when the vehicle is slowing or coming to a stop The control unit uses inputs from the accelerator pedal switches to vary the amount of current to the clutch and to signal ratio changes to the adjustable pulleys inside the transmission The inhibitor switch prevents clutch engagement when the gear selector is in the P or N position When the electromagnetic clutch is energized engine torque is transferred to the transmission s input sha and the drive pulley At the end ofthe transmission s input sha is the transmission s oil pump therefore the clutch control unit has indirect control of the oil pressure in the transmission Pressure from the pump is used to control the sheaves ofboth the drive and driven pulleys Line pressure is controlled by a threeway solenoid in the transmission valve body Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 43 N Rotary ow is in the direction ofimpeller rotation and results from the paddle action ofthe impeller vanes against the uid Vortex oil ow is the uid ow circulating between the impeller and turbine as the uid moves from the impellerto the turbine and back to the impeller W A typical torque converter consists of three elements sealed in a single housing the impeller the turbine and the stator The impeller is the drive member of the unit and its ns are attached directly to the converter cover The turbine is the converter s output member and is coupled to the transmission39s input shaft The turbine is driven by the uid ow from the impeller and always turns at its own speed The stator is the reaction member of the converter This assembly is about onehalf the diameter ofthe impeller or turbine and is positioned between the impeller and turbine P Automatic transmission pumps are driven by the engine39s crankshaft through the torque converter housing The pumps in all rearwheel drive and some frontwheel drive transmissions are driven externally by the torque converter39s drive hub The hub has two slots or ats machined in it which t into the pump drive As the converter rotates the pump is driven directly by the hub Many frontwheel drive transaxes use a hexshaped or spined shaft tted in the center ofthe converter cover to drive the pump This system is called an internal drive 9quot Stall occurs when the turbine is held stationary and the impeller is spinning Stall speed is the fastest speed an engine can reach while the turbine is at stall 9 Modulating the TCC solenoid allows for smooth clutch engagement and disengagement It also allows for partial engagement H Slippage in a torque converter results from a loss of energy and most of these losses are in the generation offrictional heat Heat is produced as the uid hits and pushes its internal members To maintain the ef ciency that it has the uid must be cooled The transmission39s pump continually delivers ATF into the torque converter through a hollow shaft in the center of the torque converter assembly The uid is circulated through the converter and exits past the turbine through the turbine sha From there the uid is directed to an external oil cooler and back to the transmission39s oil pan This cooling circuit ensures that the uid owing into the converter is cooled thereby maintaining the converter39s normal ef ciency 9 A converter clutch disc is spined to the turbine so that it can drive the turbine when the friction material is forced against the torque converter39s cover Aquot converter clutch assemblies are tted with a damper assembly that directs the power ow through a group ofcoil springs The damper springs are either located at the center ofthe disc or grouped around the outer edge ofthe disc These springs are designed to absorb the normal torsional vibrations of an engine which vary with changes in speed and load 9 The stator receives the uid thrown off by the turbine and redirects the uid so that it reenters the impeller in the same direction as crankshaft rotation The redirection of the uid by the stator not only prevents a torque loss but also provides for a multiplication of torque The stator is mounted on a oneway clutch that allows the stator to rotate in one direction only The stator locks in the opposite direction ofturbine rotation The uid leaving the turbine must pass through the stator bades before reaching the impeller ln passing through the stator the direction of uid ow is reversed by the cunature of the stator blades The uid now moves in a direction that aids in the rotation of the impeller The impeller accelerates the movement of the uid and it now leaves with nearly twice the energy and exerts a greater force on the turbine This action results in a torque multiplication 9 The velocity of the vortex ow is the sum of the impeller produced velocity plus the velocity of the uid returning from the turbine and stator Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E FillintheBlanks 1 Fluid torque converter explate 2 Higher faster more 3 Housing impeller turbine 4 Zero partial half full cycling 5 Light emitting diode LED PM generator 6 90 torque multiplication 7 lmpeller turbine stator piston clutch plate thrust washers roller bearings 8 Gear rotor vane vane 9 Rotor body clutch cover silicone uid 10 Vortex high low Multiple Choice oomummbwwd gtmoogtmoogto SHOP MANUAL PAGES 286288 AS EStyle Review Questions 0 oomummbwyv n OOUUUOUUUZDU Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 45 ASE Challenge Questions C 1 2 3 4 5 DJgtJgtO Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 7 Hydraulic Circuits and Controls Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Classroom Manual Objectives Describe the design and operation of the hydraulic controls and valves used in modern transmissions and transaxles Describe the basic types of valves used in automatic transmissions Describe the various configurations ofa spool valve and explain how it can be used to open and close various hydraulic circuits Explain the role and operation of the following components of the transmission control system pressure regulation valve throttle valve governor assembly manual valve shift valves and kickdown assembly Describe the operation of the main pressure regulator valve Describe how uid pressure can be controlled by a solenoid Describe the different designs of a governor and explain the operation of eac pe Explain why loadsensing devices are necessary for automatic transmission ef ciency Identify the various pressures in the transmission and explain their purpose in the total functioning of the transmission Describe the purpose of a transmission s valve bo Trace through the oil circuit for a transmission and describe where the uid flows in each transmission range Overview Shop Manual Objectives Remove and install the valve body from common transmissions Check valve body mating surfaces Inspect and measure valve body bores springs sleeves retainers brackets check balls and screens Inspect and replace valve body spacers and gaskets Check andor adjust valve body bolt torque Inspect and replace governor cover and Is Inspect adjust repair and replace governor sleeve valve weights springs retainers and gear This chapter in both manuals discusses hydraulic systems and apply devices They include the theory and service of the various valves used in today s transmissions 47 Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 195245 Shop Manual pages 297316 Terms to Know Balltype valve Carburetor cleaner Hybrid valve Lands Manual shaft Manual valve Needle check valve Oil circuit Orifice Poppet valve Pressureregulating valve Reaction area Relay valve Relief valve Separator plate Shift valve Lecture Outline and Notes Solenoidpressure switch Spool valve Throttle valve Transfer plate Transmission fluid pressure switch Twoway check valve Valley Objectives Review the chapters objectives Introduction Discuss the power ow through the transmission TWUOWP IV Valve Bodies A Theory Control Devices Discuss the need for a transmission check valve Describe how relief valves control pressure Describe the need for small openings to control uid Describe spool valves and how they are used Describe how control valves direct the flow oflluid Describe relay valves and their operation 1 Discuss the purpose of the valve body 2 Describe the three types ofvalves found in a valve body 3 List and describe the main parts of a valve body B Valve Body Removal Nf Discuss the precautions to take when removing a valve body Describe and demonstrate how to keep check balls in check Describe and demonstrate how to keep the various valve body bolts in order so that reassembly is done correctly Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 4 Describe how to disassemble the valve body C Valve Body Service Describe the reassembly procedure Describe the general inspection of the valves Discuss the use of hazardous cleaning agents Discuss the importance of checking gasket placement Discuss torquing the valve body bolts FIN50quot V Valves A Pressure Regulator Valves 1 Describe how the pressure regulator works 2 Discuss the valves primary purposes B Shift Valves 1 Describe shift valves and their operation 2 Describe how the manual spool valve works 3 Discuss the need for a kickdown valve and how it works Vl Pressures A Mainline Pressure 1 Describe mainline pressure 2 Discuss the generation of mainline pressure 3 Describe the use of mainline pressure within the hydraulic circuits ofa transmission 4 Explain the purpose and operation of the pressure regulator valve B Throttle Pressure 1 Define throttle pressure 2 Discuss the purpose of throttle pressure 3 Explain how throttle pressure is controlled 4 Describe the relationship of throttle pressure to mainline pressure and boost pressure C Governor Pressure 1 Define governorpressure 2 Explain how governor pressure is generated and controlled 3 Describe the relationship of governor pressure to throttle pressure 4 Discuss how throttle and governor pressures control shifting Vll Governors A Theory and Purpose 1 Describe how the governor works to achieve proper shifting 2 Discuss vehicle speed sensors and how they work to replace a governor in today s transmissions B Governor Service Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 49 1 Describe disassembly of the governor 2 Describe the reassembly procedure 3 Explain the necessity of correctly placing weights and valves VIII Load Sensors A Describe the operation of a vacuum modulator B Describe how the throttle linkage works to balance the load C Discuss the MAP sensor and its possible use as a load sensor D Discuss shift timing and its purpose gtlt Electronic Pressure Controls A Describe the use of electronics to control pressure B Discuss solenoidoperated valves C Compare older types of valves to electronic control valves gtlt Oil Circuits Discuss the ow of uids through the circuits in the transmission and the valve body 5 Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 7 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 246248 Short Answer Essays N W P 9quot All uids conform to the shape oftheir container Pascal determined that force applied to liquid creates pressure or the transmission of force through the liquid Liquids have no shape oftheir own they acquire the shape of the container they are put in Liquids are basically incompressible The pressure applied to a liquid in a sealed container is transmitted equally in all directions and to all areas of the system and acts with equal force on all areas When a pressure is applied to a con ned liquid the pressure of the liquid is the same everywhere within the hydraulic system The basic types of valves used in automatic transmissions are ball poppet or needle check valves and relief valves ori ces and spool valves Check valves are used to hold uid in cylinders and to prevent uid from returning to the resenoir A check valve opens when uid is owing and closes when the ow stops The valve also closes when uid pressure is applied to the outlet side of the valve Check valves can also serve as a oneway valve and the direction of the uid ow controls and operates the check valve The transmission s pump provides a ow of uid to the mainline circuit This ow is limited by engine speed and the pressure regulatorvalve Mainline pressure is developed by the pressure regulatorvalve when it blocks or resists the ow of uid The separator and transfer plates are designed to seal off some ofthe passages and they contain some openings that help to control and direct uid ow through speci c passages Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 6 Mainline pressure is a regulated pump pressure that is the source of all other pressures in the transmission Governor pressure is a regulated hydraulic pressure that varies with vehicle speed Throttle pressure is a regulated pressure that varies with engine load or throttle position 7 The three common designs of governors are shaltmounted geardnven with check balls and geardriven with a spool valve 8 Shi valves control the upshilting and downshi ing of the transmission by controlling the ow of uid to the apply devices that engage the different gears 9 Shi ing electronically allows for shifting at more optimum times than does shi ing by hydraulics and is based on inputs to a control computer from various sensors such as engine temperature engine speed engine load vehicle speed throttle position and gear selector position 10 A balltype check valve without a return spring can be used as a twoway check valve This type of valve is used where hydraulic pressure from two different sources is to be sent to the same outlet port When hydraulic pressure on one side ofthe valve is strongerthan the pressure on the other side ofthe valve the ball moves to the weaker side and doses that port The ball will toggle between the ports in response to differing pressures Both ports are open at the same time unless the pressures on both sides ofthe ba are equal Normally ifthe pressures were equal the ball would be centered and would block offthe outlet port FillintheBlanks 1 Balltype check valves 2 Pressureregulating owdirecting 3 Increased increased heavy loads 4 Regulator exhaust 5 High low 6 Manual 7 Lands hydraulic passages reaction area lands 8 Valve body separator plate transfer plate 9 Mainline throttle governor 10 Sha gear check balls gear spoo valve Multiple Choice C pp PP PWNr OOOOZDOZD Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 51 10 C SHOP MANUAL PAGES 317318 AS EStyle Review Questions oomummbwwd IDOOUUJUJOZDUUJ ASE hallenge Questions V39PWNT gtogtmUO Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 9 Reaction and Friction Units Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Classroom Manual Objectives Shop Manual Objectives Describe the purpose and operation of the 0 Inspect and replace bands and drums Common read39on members Adjust bands internally and externally Exp39a39 how a brake band works and What Inspect and replace servo including bore quot5 purpose 39539 piston seals pin spring and retainers Identify the basic components in a and repair or replace as necessary hydraulic servo and describe their function Inspect an accumulator bore piston seals spring and retainers while the Describe the different types of oneway transmission is in or out of the vehicle clutches used in automatic transmissions Inspect and senice clutch drum piston o Explain how a rollertype or spragtype checkballs springs retainers seals and oneway clutch works friction and pressure plates Identify the components in a hydraulic 0 Measure and adjust clutch pack clearance multiple disc clutch and describe their function Describe theconditions required for Inspect and service roller and Sprag amomat39c Sh39mng39 clutch races rollers sprags springs List the conditions that may have an effect cages and retainers on shift feel Explain the purpose and operation of an accumulator and modulator valve Air test the operation of the clutch pack and servo assemblies Overview This chapter in both manuals covers the construction purpose and senice of the various clutches and brakes used in transmissions and transaxles Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 281308 Shop Manual pages 371403 Terms to Know Cantilever Fulcrum Splitband Clutch volume index CVI Overcenter spring Steel discs 59 Coast Pressure plate Steels Dual band Selective servo apply pins Transmission tuneup Lecture Outline and Notes l Objectives Review the chapters objectives Reaction Members Discuss the importance of reaction members with regard to gear ratio changes in the planetary gearset Friction and Reaction Units Discuss the purposes of clutches and brakes and explain how each of them works to connect or hold members of the planetary gearset Brake Bands A Purpose and Construction 1 Describe the different types of bands used and explain their applications 2 Describe how bands are used and their operation B Band Service 1 Describe general inspection of the bands 2 Describe band adjustment 3 Describe how drums should be checked 2 lt Servo and Accumulator A Purpose and Construction 1 Describe the operation of a servo 2 Describe the accumulator and its use B Servo and Accumulator Service Describe the disassemny of the accumulator Describe how to disassemble the servo Describe inspection ofthe servos and accumulators Describe the reassembly procedure Describe the method of measuring for the correct selective servo pin Discuss seal removal and inspection swaths va S OneWay Clutches and Brakes A Describe an overrunning clutch and its use B Describe and discuss the ways to check a rdler cl utch C Describe and discuss the ways to check a sprag cl utch Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E VllMultipleFriction Disc Clutch and Brake Assemblies A MultipleFriction Disc Packs Describe the purpose of the multipledisc packs found in transmissions emphasize that they can be used to connect and brake gearset members and describe howtheir purpose can be identi ed by their placement in the transmission Construction 1 Describe the individual parts that make up a multipledisc pack 2 Describe the different types of spring used in multipledisc packs C Service Describe the disassemny of the multipledisc pack assembly Describe the general inspection of multipledisc packs Describe the reassembly procedure Describe how to make clearance checks on a multipledisc pack assembly Describe how to air test a multipledisc pack assembly and senos D Clutch Volume Index Discuss CVI in terms of efficiency W 59 0 VIII Gear Changes A Shift Feel Describe the necessity for proper shift feel and how it is accomplished B Shift Quality 1 Describe what is meant by shift quality 2 Describe the ways shift quality can be changed IX Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 9 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 308310 Short Answer Essays 1 Reaction members are those parts ofa planetary gearset that are held in order to produce an output motion Other members ofthe planetary gearset react against the stationary or held member N Because ofthe location ofthe servo and band anchor the band becomes selfenergized and wraps itself around the drum in the same direction as drum rotation This selfenergizing effect reduces the force that the seno must produce to hold the band Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 61 W A multipledisc pack also contains one or more return springs return spring retainers seals one or more pressure plates and snap rings The seals hold in the hydraulic pressure during application ofthe pack A pressure plate is a heavy metal plate that provides the clamping surface for the plates and is installed at one end or both ends ofthe pack The snap rings are used to hold the parts in the pack together In a typical pack the apply piston at the rear ofthe drum is held in place by the return springs and a spring retainer secured by a snap ring Hydraulic pressure moves the piston against return spring pressure and clamps the plates against the pressure plate The friction between the plates locks them together causing them to turn as a unit P The multiplefriction disc pack can be used to drive or hold a member ofthe planetary gearset by connecting the member to the transmission s case or to a clutch drum 9quot Two types of singlewrap bands are commonly used in transmissions today One type is made of light and exible steel and the other type is made of heavy and more rigid cast iron The heavy bands are typically made with a metallic lining material that can withstand large gripping pressures Light bands are lined with a lessabrasive material that helps limit drum wear 9 A Belleville spring acts to improve the clamping force ofthe assembly and as a piston return spring The spring is locked into a groove inside the drum by a snap ring As the piston moves to apply the pack it moves the inner ends of the Belleville spring ngers into contact with the pressure plate to apply the assembly The spring s ngers act as levers against the pressure plate and increase the application force of the pack When hydraulic pressure to the piston is stopped the spring relaxes and returns to its original shape The piston is forced back and the pack is released H Accumulators rely on the action ofa piston or a valve to delay the delivery of high pressure to a clutch or band An accumulatorworks like a shock absorber and cushions the application of senos and disc packs An accumulator cushions sudden increases in hydraulic pressure by temporarily diverting some of the apply uid into a parallel circuit or chamber This allows the pressure to gradually increase and provides for smooth engagement ofa brake or clutch 9 Shi Feelquot is controlled by the pressure at which each reaction member is applied or released the rate at which each is pressurized or exhausted and the relative timing ofthe apply and release of the members It is also affected by uid type the momentary engagement ofa component in a different circuit pulsed pressures the clearance ofthe apply devices and many more design features ofthe various transmission models 9 A roller clutch utilizes roller bearings held in place by springs to separate the inner and outer races ofthe clutch assembly Around the inside ofthe outer race are several camshaped indentations The rollers and springs are located in these pockets Rotation ofone race in one direction locks the rollers between the two races causing both to rotate together When a race is rotated in the opposite direction the roller bearings move into the pockets and are not locked between the races A oneway sprag clutch consists of a hub and a drum separated by gure eightshaped metal pieces called sprags The sprags are shaped in such a manner that they lock between the races when a race is turned in one direction only Between the inner and outer races of the clutch are the sprags cages and springs The sprags are longer than the distance between the two races The cages keep the sprags equally spaced around the diameter ofthe races The spn39ngs hold the sprags at the correct angle and maintain contact ofthe sprags with the races for instantaneous engagement When a race turns in one direction the sprags tilt and allow the races to move independently When a race is moved in the opposite direction the sprags straighten up and lock the two races together 9 A band is applied hydraulically by a servo unit The seno contracts the band when hydraulic pressure pushes against the seno s piston and overcomes the tension of the seno s return Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E spring This action moves an operating rod toward the band which squeezes the band around the drum FillintheBlanks 1 Sun ring 2 Doublewrap singlevvrap 3 Governor throttle throttle 4 Centrifugal check ball relief 5 Coil small coil Belleville 6 Straight lever cantilever 7 Driving 8 Surface area 9 Driving device splined splined together the same speed 10 Reaction members Multiple Choice 0 oomummbwyv n OOUUOJgtJgtOJgtJgt SHOP MANUAL PAGES 403404 AS EStyle Review Questions B PHP P PWN JgtUUUOUO Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 9 C 10 B ASE Challenge Questions A 1 2 3 4 5 gt00 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 8 Gears and Shafts Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Classroom Manual Objectives Shop Manual Objectives Identify the components in a basic 0 Inspect measure and replace thrust planetary gearset and describe their washers and bearings Operat39on Inspect and replace bushings Describe how different gear ratios are obtained from a single planetary gearset Describe the construction and operation of typical Simpson gearbased transmissions Describe the construction and operation of Ravigneaux gearbased transmissions Describe the construction and operation of transmissions that use planetary gearsets in tandem Describe the purpose of a differential Identify the major components of a differential and explain their purpose Describe the various gears in a differential assembly and state their purpose Explain the operation of a FWD differential and its drive axles Describe the different designs of four wheeldrive systems and their applications Discuss the purpose of the various shafts found in today s automatic transmissions and transaxles Inspect and measure a planetary gear assembly and replace parts as necessary Inspect and replace shafts Remove and install the various types of shaft seals Inspect repair or replace transaxle drive chains sprockets gears bearings and bushings Inspect and replace parking pawl shaft spring and retainer Inspect measure repair adjust or replace transaxle nal drive components Overview This chapter in both manuals covers planetary gears and shafts their design variations applications and service Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 249276 Shop Manual pages 325353 53 Terms to Know Annulus gear Internal gear Selective thrust washers Etching Pinion gear Thrust load Interaxle differential Reaction member Lecture Outline and Notes l Objectives Review the chapter s objectives Simple Planetary Gearsets A Review of Gear Theory 1 Discuss the use oflevers and gears 2 Introduce automatic transmission gears Planetary Gears 1 Discuss the possible gear ratios available with planetary gearsets 2 Discuss gear reduction with planetary gearsets 3 Describe direct drive in a planetary gear system 4 Describe overdrive using planetary gear systems 5 Describe reverse with a planetary gearset 6 Discuss neutral with planetary gearsets 7 Discuss compound planetary gearsets E Planetary Gear Assemblies A Simpson Gearset 1 Describe the members of this type of gear train 2 Explain how ratios and rotations are obtained 3 Discuss basics ofgearset powertlow B Ravigneaux Gearset 1 Describe the members of this type of gear train 2 Explain how ratios and rotations are obtained 3 Discuss basics ofgearset powertlow C Planetary Gearsets in Tandem 1 Describe the members of this type ofgear train 2 Explain how ratios and rotations are obtained 3 Discuss basics ofgearset powertlow D NonPlanetary Based Transmiss39ons Describe the operation of Honda s nonplanetary transmission Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E E Planetary Gear Service 1 Discuss the need for careful inspection 2 Explain measuring procedures 3 Discuss the need for setting clearances to specifications 2 Final Drives and Differentials A Differential Units 1 Review differential operation and purpose 2 Describe the maintenance of nal drive assemblies used in transaxles B Final Drive Components Explain the operation of nal drives lt 4WD Design Variations A Discuss the control variations of 4WD gears B Describe how a transfer case works C Describe how a viscous clutch works Shafts A Types and Location of Shafts Discuss the location and the reason for this location of the various shafts found in today s transmissions and transaxles B Shaft Service 1 Describe inspecting the shafts for scores and wear 2 Discuss how to determine if the shafts can be reused S V Thrust Washers Bushings and Bearings A Location and Purpose of Bearings Bushings and Thrust Washers 1 Discuss the different types of bearings and thrust washers 2 Discuss transmission bushings and where they are typically used B Thrust Washer Bushing and Bearing Service 1 Discuss the maintenance of thrustwashers bushings and bearings 2 Explain how to select the correct thrust washer or bearing C Snap Rings 1 Discuss the various types of snap rings used in today s transmissions 2 Explain what a selective snap ring is Vlll Parking Pawl Theory Explain the purpose of a parking pawl and how it is activated B Service Describe parking pawl inspection and service Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 55 IX Drive Chains A Theory Explain the purpose of drive chains and when they are used B Service Describe how to inspect and test a drive chain gtlt Transfer Gears A Theory Explain the purpose of transfer gears and why they are used B Service Discuss the typical procedures for inspecting and checking the transfer gears in a transaxle Xl Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 8 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 277279 Short Answer Essays 1 N W P 9quot 9 If any two ofthe planetary gearset members receive power in the same direction and at the same speed the third member is forced to move with the othertwo and direct drive results The input sha connects the output of the torque converter to the driving members inside the transmission The output sha connects the driven member ofthe gearsets to the nal drive gearset There are two common designs of compound gearsets the Simpson gearset in which two planetary gearsets share a common sun gear and the Ravigneaux gearset which has two sun gears two sets ofplanet gears and a common ring gear lfthe planet carrier is held and the sun gear is rotated in a clockwise rotation the ring gear will rotate in a counterclockwise direction The planet gears cannot travel around the teeth of an enmeshed gear rather the carrier is held in place and the planet gears spin on their shalts The sun gear spins the planet gears which drive the ring gear in the opposite direction but at a slower speed Therefore the gearset is providing reverse gear with reduction Gear reduction is accomplished in a planetary gearset by holding the sun gear If power is applied to the ring gear the planet gears will spin on their sha s in the planet carrier Because the sun gear is being held the spinning planet gears will walk around the sun gear and carry the planet carrier with them this causes a gear reduction Gear reduction can also occur if the ring gear is held and the sun gear is the input gear The planet carrier rotates around the sun gear but turns more slowly than it did when the ring gear drove the planet carrier As the vehicle goes around a comer the inside wheel travels a shorter distance than the outside wheel The inside wheel must therefore rotate more slowly than the outside wheel An equal Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E percentage of speed is removed from one axle and given to the other however an equal amount of torque is applied to each wheel 7 A transfer case divides transmission output to the two different drive axles to provide for four wheel drive 8 These transagtltles have a main sha and countersha on which the gears ride The two sha s run parallel to each other and some later models have a third parallel sha To provide the fonivard gears and one reverse gear different pairs of gears are locked to the sha s by hydraulically controlled clutches Reverse gear is obtained on some models through the use ofa shi fork that slides the reverse gear into position The power ow through these transagtltles is also similarto that of a manual transaxle 9 When there is input into a planetary gearset but a member is not held neutral results 10 When two gearsets are in tandem the front ring gear is normally connected to the rear carrier and the rear ring gear is connected to the front carrier FillintheBlanks 1 External internal 2 Sun ring 3 Direction speed direct 4 Sun gear planetary carrier ring gear 5 Annulus internal 6 Increased decreased 7 Planet carrier 8 lnteragtltle 9 Planet ring sun 10 Sun planet ring Multiple Choice 03 oomwmmbwwd OOOOZDOUUUJ SHOP MANUAL PAGES 353354 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 57 AS EStyle Review Questions A oomummbwyv n 003000300300 ASE hallenge Questions V39PWNT gtooom0 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 1 Tools and Safety Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Overview This chapter in both manuals discusses automotive shop safety Practicing safety is a mark of professionalism Safety aspects discussed here include dress tool and equipment maintenance re safety shop inspections and safe handling of batteries Hazardous material identification and accident response are also explained Classroom Manual Objectives Explain how safety practices are part of professional behavior Dress safely and professionally Recognize re hazards Inspect equipment and tools for unsafe conditions Properly work around batteries Explain the procedures for responding to an accident Identify substances that could be regarded as hazardous materials Shop Manual Objectives Identify and describe the purpose of hand tools commonly found in a asic automotive technician s tool set Describe the use of common pneumatic electrical and hydraulic power tools found in an automotive senice department Describe some of the special tools used to service automatic transmissions Explain the importance of safety and accident prevention in an automotive shop Explain the basic principles of personal safety including the use of protective eye wear clothing gloves shoes and hearing protection Explain the procedures and precautions for safely using tools and equipment Explain the precautions that need to be followed to safely raise a vehicle on a lift Properly lift heavy objects Extinguish the common variety of res Safely work around and with batteries Describe the purpose of the laws concerning hazardous wastes and materials including the RighttoKnow laws Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 19 Shop Manual pages 134 Terms to Know Allen wrench CO Carbon Monoxide Pressfit Blowgun Corrosivity Reactivity Boxend wrench Hazardous waste Rightto Know laws Breakout box lgnitability Safety stands Caustic Jack stands Scan tool Class A fire Line wrench Shank Class B fire Openend wrench Torque wrench Class C fire OSHA Toxicity Class D fire Phillips screwdriver Volatile Lecture Outline and Notes l Objectives Review the chapters objectives Introduction Discuss the need for all to be safetyminded in the shop Personal Safety Discuss the need for a technician to be conscious of safety for himself and all others around him A W O U l39l39l Dress and Appearance Discuss the fact that a person s dress and appearance re ect on his or her work Explain what is important for their safety Rotating Pulleys and Belts Explain the problems with pulleys and belts and how to ensure safety in the work around them Jewelr Discuss the need for a technician to remove jewelry Foot Protection Explain what safe footwear is and why it is needed Safety Glasses Describe safety glasses and why they are needed Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E F Hand Protection Explain where hand protection is needed IV Fire Hazards and Prevention Discuss res in the shop in general and their causes A Gasoline Discuss the volatility of gasoline and how it burns B Diesel Fuel Discuss the volatility of diesel fuel and how it burns C Solvents Discuss the volatility of solvents and how they burn D Rags Discuss the volatility of rags and how they burn Discuss the use ofa rag safety can and the need to keep it empty E Types of Fire Extinguishers Discuss the different types of res and fire extinguishers Make sure you show where the various re extinguishers are located in the shop Class A Class B Class C Class D Proper usage Explain and demonstrate the proper use of a re extinguisher Job Sheet 1 bodice 0 lt Safe Tools and Equipment A Safe Hand Tools Discuss the safe use of hand tools B Hand Tool Inspection Explain hand tool inspection 5 Accidents Discuss shop accidents in general and their causes A First Aid Discuss where the firstaid kit is located and how to use it Suggest that the students take a rst aid andor CPR course and give them information on where they can attend these classes B Other Safety Devices Discuss other safety devices in the shop such as the eyewash fountain fire blankets and safety shields C Dealing with Accidents Discuss how an accident is handed and the forms that are needed for reporting Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E VllHazardous Materials Discuss what hazardous materials consist of A RighttoKnow Laws Discuss the handling of hazardous wastes and how the shop complies with the laws B OSHA Explain the role of OSHA and how it affects the operation of an automotive O Handling and Disposing of Shop Wastes Explain the shop s policies for handling and disposing of the following shop wastes Oil Oil lters Transmission uid Batteries Metal residue from machining Refn39gerants Solvents Containers Other solids Liquid recycling Shop towelsrags eOSOFX39NOVOwae Vlll Common Hand Tools Show examples and demonstrate the use of the following tools A Wrenches B Ratchets and sockets C Torque wrenches D Screwdrivers E Pliers F Hammers and maets G Punches and chisels H Files Taps and dies IX Power Tools Show examples and demonstrate the safe use of the following A Airwrenches B Bowgun C Bench grinder D Trouble ight E Presses Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E X Lifting Tools Demonstrate the safe use and the various safety precautions and features of the following Jacks Safety stands Hydraulic lift Transmission jacks Engine hoist FWD engine support fixtures Transmissiontransaxle holding fixtures O39nI39I39IUOmgt E Special Tools Show the following tools and give a brief discussion of when they are used A Scan tools B Gear and bearing pullers C Bushing and seal pullers and drivers D Special tool sets X Safe Work Practices A Lifting Heavy Objects Explain the method forlifting heavy objects B Other Safety Practices Discuss other safety practices that should be followed such as the method for using wrenches to protect ngers and hands and hold a discussion on equipment that should be worn in the shop including the following Eye protection Cl othing Hair and jewelry Shoes Gloves Ear protection Respiratory protection C Good Ventilation Discuss the need for good shop ventilation Explain dangers and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning Describe the operation of the shop s exhaust system D Professional Behavior Explain why professional behavior is not only good for customer relations but also good for safety P F r gt9 Xlll Equipment Safety A Equipment Discuss the different equipment in the shop and inspection procedures Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E B Periodic Maintenance Describe the periodic maintenance requirement C Battery Safety Discuss the causes of battery accidents Handing batteries Discuss how to handle a battery safely Jump starting Discuss the method forjumpstarting a vehicle safely Electrical system repairs Discuss the safestway to repair an electrical system D Air Bag System Job Sheet 2 Describe the connectors and discuss arming procedures for the air bag system E Service Warnings and Cautions Discuss the importance of adhering to senice warnings and cautions N 00 XI lt Vehicle Operation Review the shop s policies for road tests driving behavior and care of the customers vehicles Safe Work Areas Discuss good housekeeping Discuss individual and management responsibilities for safe working conditions XV Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 1 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 911 Short Answer Essays WI 9quot 9 7 Neat work habits organizational skills and good attitudes are characteristics ofa professional in any trade Neat habits are also safe habits Proper clothing helps to protect you in case ofan accident and can also help prevent accidents You should wear eye protection wheneverthere is a possibility ofsomething foreign owing in the air Gasoline should always be stored in an approved storage container Tools should always be used properly maintained properly used only by someone trained to use them inspected prior to use and used only when all safety features are present and working and should never be used to do something they were not designed to do Inform the supervisor immediately Immediately ush the eye with clean water or ushing solution and then contact a doctor Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 8 An MSDS contains information about the chemical being used including the nature of the chemical the effects of exposure to the chemical and the rst aid treatment for exposure 9 Waste management rms are approved by the government and will collect and properly dispose of all hazardous waste 10 All employees have the right to know about all hazardous materials to which they may be exposed FillintheBlanks 1 Workhabitsrespect 2 Machining equipment grinding wheels chemicals compressed air fuels 3 OSHA 4 MSDS 5 Workaccidents 6 Volatility 7 Gasoline diesel fuel cleaning solvents dirty rags 8 Flammability 9 Tennis jogging leather leather 10 Rightto Know Multiple Choice Ppp PP PWNr 00030000030 SHOP MANUAL PAGES 3536 AS EStyle Review Questions C 1 2 B 3 C 4 A Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Ppp p IDOUOOO Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 4 Electrical and Electronic Controls Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able to Classroom Manual Objectives Explain basic electrical terms Discuss the basic theories of electricity Explain the value of Ohm s Law Explain howlaws of magnetism are used to control automatic transmissions Explain what a computer is and how it works Describe the basic types of sensors used in electronically controlled transmission systems Explain the advantages of using electronic controls for transmission shifting Explain an elementary shift logic chart Brie y describe what determines the shift characteristics of each selector lever position Explain why adaptive learning is an important advancement for electronic control systems Identify the input and output devices in a typical automatic transmission electronic control system and brie y describe the function of each Overview Shop Manual Objectives Diagnose electronic control systems and determine needed repairs Conduct a road test to determine if the fault is electrical or hydraulic Use common electrical test instruments to locate problems Conduct preliminary checks on EAT systems and determine needed repairs or senice Retrieve trouble codes from common electronically controlled automatic transmissions and determine needed repairs or senice Fdlow the prescribed diagnostic procedures according to DTC andor symptom and determine needed repairs or senice Perform converter clutch system tests and determine needed repairs or senice Inspect test and replace electricalelectronic switches Inspect test and replace electricalelectronic sensors Inspect test bypass and replace electricalelectronic solenoids Inspect test adj ust andor replace transmission related electricalelectronic components This chapter in both manuals reviews basic electrical and electronic theory and testing They also cover the ways to test and check electronic transmission control circuits Because ofthe computer controls it is necessary to understand the operation and the tests that need to be 25 made to diagnose problems in them These chapters also cover the service that can be made Explain that most of the transmissions talked about in these chapters are late models Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 83113 Shop Manual pages 127190 Terms to Know Adaptive learning Flux lines Resistance ALDL Glitches RFI Ammeter Impedance Scan tool Amplitude Insulator Semiconductor Computer LED Serial data Conductor Magnetism Series circuit Current Multimeter Shift schedule Cycle Multiplexing Short Default mode Ohmmeter Sinusoidal Digital signal Ohm39s Law Solenoid Diode Open TCM DLC OSS Thermistors DMM Parallel circuit VFM DSO Potentiometers VFS EEPROM Pressure sensors Voltage Electricity PWM Voltage drop Electromagnet Reference voltage Voltage generator EPC solenoid sensors Voltmeter Lecture Outline and Notes l Objectives Review the chapters objectives Basic Electricity Describe the factors involved in electrical circuits Descn39be electrical circuit defects Define magnetism and its use in automobiles Discuss circuit contrds Explain semiconductors and their automotive use moomgt Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E lll Basic Electrical Testing Recommend the use of a senice manual for proper procedures Discuss ammeters voltmeters ohmmeters and multimeters Discuss test lights and continuity lights Discuss the basic testing of electrical components oowgt 2 Electrical Problems A Describe and discuss the three major types of electrical problems opens shorts and highresistance problems Include in the discussion how each affects the operation of a circuit B Discuss how the location of these problems can be found using common electrical test equipment lt Lab Scopes A Demonstrate how a lab scope works as a visual voltmeter B Discuss the purpose and use of lab scopes 1 Explain how data is displayed 2 Describe the scope s screen layout 3 Define radio frequency interference RFI and glitches 4 Discuss the effects of RFI and glitches on data displays C Describe the differences between analog and digital scopes 1 Explain realtime displays 2 Discuss digital storage oscilloscopes D80 3 Explain the displaying of analog signals 4 Discuss signal conversion D Various Signals 1 Describe and explain the difference between analog and digital waveforms 2 Describe howAC and DC signals are displayed 5 Basics of Electronic Controls A Discuss the advantages of electronic controls 1 Explain the impact of shift timing on fuel usage and emissions 2 Discuss the type of signal generated by the various sensors 3 Review the shift controls on a nonelectronic transmission B Discuss input sensors 1 Discuss the sensors for engine operating condition and the rde they play in shifting 2 Describe the gear selector sensor and the impact of its signal on transmission operation 3 Discuss the transmission sensors and their role in transmission operation Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 27 C Discuss the control modules D Electronically Controlled Transmissions Describe the basic operation of an EAT E Describe the processing of data to calculate and affect shifting V Scan Tools Talk the students through the setup for each of the scan tools that are available Vlll General EAT Diagnosis A Discuss the general inspection of wiring and control devices B Explain the importance of using service manuals 1 Discuss paper manuals and their use 2 Discuss computerized data banks Explain the use of road tests as important diagnostic tools Describe the need for good wiring schematics Explain the necessity for using the proper electrical meter or tester Preliminary Checks Discuss the key items that should be checked such as engine performance prior to diagnosing an EAT Guidelines for Diagnosing EATs Review the general guidelines and precautions for diagnosing all computer control systems quotquotquotquotUo C E OnBoard Diagnostics A Basic Diagnostics of NonOBD ll Systems Discuss tools and testers Discuss and compare domestic controls and DTCs Discuss import control diagnosis and DTCs Discuss the tests that should be conducted according to the retrieved DTCs 59 B Basic Diagnostics of OBD ll Systems 1 Discuss tools and testers 2 Discuss the changes brought about by OBD 3 Explain what is signi ed by the various DTCs and discuss what actions should be taken in response to them gtlt Electronic Defaults Discuss the reason for default modes of operation and describe the problems that might cause a transmission to go into default 5 Detailed Testing of System A Discuss general electrical circuit testing 1 Discuss test equipment and tools Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E XIII X X 2 Discuss the importance of performing basic tests rst 3 Explain voltage drops and measurements 4 Explain the use ofscan tools to check transmission controls B DTCs Describe how to retrieve DTCs from various systems Detailed Testing of Inputs A Switches 1 Discuss the various switches commonly used today and their purpose 2 Explain how to test each type of switch B Sensors 1 Discuss the various types of sensors commonly used 2 Explain how to test each ofthe various types ofsensors When doing this group the sensors by theirfunction not purpose Detailed Testing of Actuators A Explain that most solenoids are electromagnets and can be tested by an ohmmeter B Discuss the other ways solenoids can be tested C Review the purpose of the various driver circuits Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Chapter 4 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 113115 Short Answer Essays 1 N W P Common voltage reference sensors include onofl switches potentiometers thermistors and pressure sensors Potentiometers thermistors and pressure sensors are designed to change their electrical resistance in response to something else changing Thermistors also change their resistance values in response to conditions However they respond to changes in heat Pressure sensors respond to pressure applied to a movable diaphragm in the switch As pressure increases so does the movement of the diaphragm and the amount of resistance in the sensor The decision to shilt or not to shi is based on shilt schedules and logic programmed into the memory ofthe computer A shi schedule contains the actual shilt points to be used by the computer according to the input data it receives from the sensors Shi schedule logic chooses the proper shi schedule for the current conditions ofthe transmission A protection device is placed in an electrical circuit to protect the wires and components from damage due to high current The computer may receive information from two different sources directly from a sensor or through a twistedpair bus circuit which connects all ofthe vehicle computer systems This Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E modulated bidirectional bus system allows the various computers in the vehicle to share information Multiplexing is a system that allows voltage signals to be shared and to exist on a single wire The signal has a preset frequency that is accepted only by the intended computer or computers 5 The solenoids have battery voltage applied to them whenever the ignition is on The computer completes the ground side of the circuit to activate the solenoids A solenoid is made ofa winding ofvvire that is wrapped around a movable so iron core When current passes through the windings the resultant magnetic eld moves the iron core in or out ofthe winding This movement causes the solenoidcontrolled valve to open or close 6 The control unit is programmed to adjust its operating parameters in response to changes within the system such as component wear As component wear and shift overlap times increase the control unit adjusts line pressure by controlling a variable force motor or solenoid to maintain proper shi timing calibrations 7 Engine speed throttle position temperature engine load and other typical enginerelated inputs are used by the computer to determine the best shi points 8 Conventional automatic transmissions waste a good amount ofthe torque produced by the engine through the heat generated by the moving uid Also because gear changes were dependent upon the movement of uid up and down shifts were somewhat lazy Manufacturers could not get the transmissions to respond immediately to the needs ofthe vehicle withoutjarring the driver and the vehicle With the use of electronic controls fortransmission operation the amount of wasted power can be reduced and the overall operation of the transmission can be more responsive with better reliability Electronic controls also allow for the production ofless complicated transmissions thereby reducing manufacturing and repair costs The use ofelectronics eliminates many ofthe complex circuits and valves in a typical valve body With this simplicity comes increased reliability in addition to reduced costs 9 Honda automatic transmissions are quite unique in the industry because they use constant mesh gears similarto a manual transmission to provide for automatic gear changes When certain combinations ofthese gears are engaged by clutches power is transmitted from the main shaft to the countersha to provide the different gear ranges 10 The mode switch allows the driverto select a desired shi mode When the switch is in the Normal position the transmission automatically shi s gears to achieve maximum fuel economy Selection of the Power range causes a delay in the shift timing to provide for maximum acceleration FillintheBlanks 1 Constant 2 Voltage drop 3 Voltage generating sensors 4 Parallel circuit 5 Receives stores processes communicates 6 Reference voltage sensors voltage generators 7 Onoff potentiometers thermistors pressure 8 Solenoids motors mechanical hydraulic 9 Two shi Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 10 Rotational speeds Multiple Choice 0 oomummbwyv n UOUUZDZDUUJOO SHOP MANUAL PAGES 191192 AS EStyle Review Questions gt oomummbwyg n UJgtOUJJgtJgtJgtUUJ ASE hallenge Questions C C C D A B P PWN Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 2 Drive Train TheoryTypical Shop Procedures Upon completion and review of this chapter the student should be able toCassroom Manual Objectives Identify the major components of a vehicle39s drive train State the purpose of a transmission Describe the major differences between a transmission and a transaxle Explain how a set of gears can increase torque Define and determine the ratio between two meshed gears Describe the basic operation of a planetary gearset State the purpose of a torque converter assembly Describe the differences between a typical FWD and RWD car State the purpose of a differential Identify and describe the various gears used in modern drive trains Identify and describe the various bearings used in modern drive trains Shop Manual Objectives List the basic units of measure forlength volume and mass in the two measuring systems Convert measurements between the SAE and the metric systems of units Describe the different types of fasteners used in the automotive industry Identify the major measuring instruments and devices used by technicians Explain what these instruments and devices measure and how to use them Describe the proper procedure for measuring with a micrometer Read a vernier scale Describe the measurements normally taken by an automatic transmission technician Using math and measuring instruments determine the corrective action to take when end clearances are not within speci cations Describe the different sources for senice information that are available to technicians Describe the requirements for ASE certi cation as an automotive technician and a master auto technician Overview This chapter in the classroom manual covers the four parts of the drive train theory including the engine transmission drive line and drive axles This chapter in the shop manual covers the basic tools and their uses It also covers the two most commonly used measurements in the automotive eld Reading Assignments Classroom Manual pages 1342 Shop Manual pages 4367 Terms to Know ASE Flatrate Backlash FlexPlate Ball bearing F39YWhee39 Bevel gear Gear ratios Bolt head Grade marks Bolt shank Helical gear Bushing Herringbone gear Constant velocity HOFSEPOWEr joint Hypoid gear Diagnosis Limitedslip Dial caliper Machinist s rule Dial indicator Meshing Differential Meter Direct drive Micrometer Downshl lng Millimeter Drive shaft Neutral End play Newtonmeters Engine load Overdrive Engine torque Feeler gauge Fillet Overall gear ratio Planetary gear Poundsfoot Preload Ring gear Roller bearing Screw pitch gauge Sl Slip yoke Speed reduction Spur gear Sun gear Thread pitch Thrust bearing Torque Tractionlock Transfer case Universal joint USCS Vacuum Valve body Vernier caliper 10 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Lecture Outline and Notes Objectives Review the chapters objectives Introduction Discuss the four major systems in the automobile engine drive train chassis and body Engine Discuss the different types of engines used Emphasize that the most common is the internal combustion engine speci cally the gasoline internal combustion engine Explain engine theory A Engine Torque Discuss engine torque and how it is developed 2 Basic Gear Theory Explain the leverage in a gear A Torque Multiplication Explain the basic gear theory Discuss the use of pulleys for torque change B Calculating Gear andor Speed Ratios Discuss torque multiplication by using gears lt Transmission A Manual Clutches Discuss why a clutch is needed and show the major components B Types of Transmissions Describe the types of transaxles and transmissions found in today s vehicles and discuss the idea behind CVTs S Transmission Gears A Types of Gears Describe the gear types and their primary advantages and disadvantages B Gear Ratios Explain how different gear ratios are obtained and discuss overdrive Shift Control Discuss the role of the gear shift linkage valve body vehicle speed engine load and engine speed in regard to the changing of gears V Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles SE 1 1 VIII 2 gtlt E X XIII XIV Drive Line Discuss the drive line universal joints and shafts and explain the need to compensate for wheel axle and frame movement A Rear Drive Axles Discuss the different types of rear axles and their corresponding rear suspensions B FrontWheel Drive Introduce frontwheel drive C FourWheel Drive Introduce the components and operation of 4WD systems Differential Design Discuss the designs of differentials A Axle Types Discuss the different types of drive axles B Common Axle Bearings Describe the different types of bearings used on dn39ve axles Types of Gears Discuss the different types and designs of gears Bearings Discuss the different types of bearings and their uses in a transmission Automatic Transmission Fluid Discuss the characteristics of ATF and the different types used in today s transmissions A Fluid Filters Discuss the purpose of a fluid lter explain what happens when dirt circulates with the fluid and describe the common types of lters used on today s transmissions Measuring Systems Discuss the USCS and SI systems A United States Customary System USCS Discuss the different measuring terms used in the USCS B Metrics SI 1 Discuss the usage of this system 2 Explain conversion of metric to USCS Fasteners Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Show examples of the different fasteners commonly found on today s vehicles and explain their advantages and disadvantages XV Measuring Tools A Discuss the use of micrometers and how to read them B Describe the use of bore gauges and their operation C Explain the need for telescoping gauges to measure hde sizes D Discuss the use and operation of calipers and dividers E Discuss the use and operation of dial indicators F Describe the different types of feeler gauges and their uses XV Basic Gear Adjustments Explain that most gears are designed to operate with certain preadjusted clearances and that the technician needs to maintain that adjustment to ensure correct gear operation A Backlash in Gears 1 Define backlash and explain how to arrive at the proper acklash 2 Discuss the use of dial indicators and feeler gauges B End Play Discuss end play in gears and shafts C Preload Explain preload and how it is measured and adjusted XV Service Manuals A Explain the need to use a service manual B Describe the use of paper manuals versus computerized manuals XVlll Logical Diagnostics Talk the students through the steps for diagnosing a problem logically Do it twice once through something nonautomotive such as what to wear and then through an auto problem X E Working as an Auto Tech Discuss the duties of the employee and employer Cover such things as responsibilities and compensation XX ASE Certification Show the students a patch registration book and ASE s andor Del mars Web site wwwautoedcom Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 13 XXI Summary Review the material covered emphasizing the main points and key words Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E Chapter 2 Answers to Review Questions CLASSROOM MANUAL PAGES 4244 Short Answer Essays 1 The primary purposes of the drive train are to connect and disconnect the engine s power select different gear ratios provide a means of reversing the movement ofthe vehicle and supply power evenly to the wheels while the vehicle is making a turn N Torque increases when a smaller gear drives a larger gear The distance from the center ofthe gear to the point where the gear teeth contact the drive gear is different compared to the distance from the center ofthe driven gear and the point where the gear teeth contact The torque will increase in proportion to the size difference ofthe drive gear compared to the driven gear It is the basic principle ofthe lever 9quot Gear ratios are calculated by dividing the number ofteeth on the driven gear by the number ofteeth on the drive gear They are expressed as a ratio drive to driven a Transmissions are equipped with different fonivard gear ratios to allow a changing amount of torque to be delivered to the drive wheels while the engine operates within its maximum torque cune This increases the overall ef ciency ofthe drive train on The primary difference between a transaxle and a transmission is that a transaxle has all of the drive train parts housed in a single unit while a transmission is mounted to the rear of an engine all other transmission related drive train components extend to the rear of the vehicle and power is supplied to the rear wheels 9 Ujoints and CVjoints allow the drive line to transmit powerthrough the drive line in spite ofthe fact that drive line angles are constantly changing N The differential or drive axle assembly receives torque from the transmission where it multiplies the torque in proportion to the gear ratio of the ring gear and pinion It also transmits power around a corner to the rear wheels 9 The primary purpose ofATF is to transmit pressure to activate the transmission39s brakes and clutches It also senes as a uid connector between the engine and the transmission removes heat from the transmission and lubricates the transmission s moving parts 9 The kinds ofgears that are commonly found in automobiles are straight spur gears helical gears bevel gears spiral bevel gears and hypoid gears P Balltype and rollertype bearings are used wherever friction must be 39 39mized Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E 15 FillintheBlanks Clutch transmission drive axles Engine torque Multiply Distance sha Screen lter paper lter felt lter Driven drive Third gear Turbine impeller stator Transaxle Drive sha PPFHPP FWNT Multiple Choice PPFHPP PWNT JgtOUJUJOJgtOJgtOO SHOP MANUAL PAGES 6768 AS EStyle Review Questions 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 3900000003 1 Instructor s Guide to Accompany Today s Technician Automatic Transmissions amp Transaxles 3E
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'