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by: Novella Considine

Organisms,Evolution,Ecosystems BIO 112

Marketplace > Davidson College > Biology > BIO 112 > Organisms Evolution Ecosystems
Novella Considine
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Novella Considine on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 112 at Davidson College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see /class/221254/bio-112-davidson-college in Biology at Davidson College.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
Hnasams Pr ka mac n oalwalj W E Small steps Loss of cellwall Vacuole Ribosome StUddEd Internal membranes allowed infolding Devexaplng agellum Endosym biosis I 1 Infolding adds surface area without Loiume amp leads to compartments LIFE as rmquot 21 n LIFE se name 211 1st eukawotes depended on rlvsl llwletlr g alanls mo P39aml ms nu gml 21 s Evidence for Endosymbiosis Chloroplasts are closely related 4ecyanobacterh4MuLvarlalele 4c 4vgt lt m anmplwm No l l V Autogenous model no endosymbiosis Giardiaj a mblia No mitochondria Animals El Likely monophyletic l Development patterns rRNA mtDNA support similar phylogeny El How to cope with high diversity El Defining characteristics Animal Diversity Cnidarians Butter iesl Flies oths BxIWasp Major Advances in Animal Evolution Elm r me mmwmm m mommnw Body Plans Radial vs bilateral symmetry mum nu human 2 mm Pm EM ML Tissue layers amp cavities l mmmumm wk mm mmquot mmquot mm iml 7 mm 39 2 l9 Pwuducwlcmltvimmml ur as Fisun a ici cmmmmmm Segments and compartments w Hanmdrce Caiunculaxa Protective iris es Jnirred arpan agFlt is a mneciexi us uum 15 mm Cephalization Relate symmetry cavities cephalization to evolution of diversity Annelids Butter ies Flies 39 Moths EnIWasp Annelids amp Arthropods El Recent convergent and lost in nematode Hneage El Hard cuticle evolved once mm m am n Segmentation convergent and lost in a Hard cuticle evolved once up 5 ngun 24 Near perfect segmentation of ielids mm mm a Mom WW m Mi in l m so am 31 ummmu Arthropod body plan Arthropod exoskeletons and musculature Cross section through a segment of a generalin d arthropod Henmcoel Heart 39Lungitudixml muscle Mu 5 01 Exoskeleton S e at cuhclel move the limbs 7 LunglluLlina Ventral HHHI IP nurw cord 3 Major Arthropod Lineages Chelicerata Crustacea Hexapoda Antennae None 2 pairs 1 pair Legs 4 pairs Variable 3 pairs 414 pairs Appendages Pedipalps Variable Wings chelicerae Diversity of 63000 40000 gt1 000000 species www ufsia ac bdArachnology agesPicturesopiliomd Jpg Crustaceans Hexapod Diversity 20 Orders Head Insect Body Parts Thorax Chordate Body Plan Vertebrate Characteristics El Pharyngeal basket El Support nAppendages El Cephalization El Coelom Major Advances in Vertebrate Evolution Vertebrate phylogeny a g Hngfixhe Lampmv Caxhlnginnu Ron chm nncd Lu rising i mapods Fishes n l gt aims s LS Marine and frushwattr vcrlcbrales are lnnughi to have developa l from stuari ne ancestors DtQQESinauuAmiitEs M A Jawless lishes M 5m v Evolution of the Jaw Early lawed fishes Mndern jawed fishes are as aw as rm I immm mmwm M i w Tetrapod Phylogeny Ccmmon ancestor Inglcup Cantlnuou Fun mammary gmwing inc snrs glands Mame urns Flume 25 Mymummmmmmimm m i Shelled egg Shell Fmoryn AmnlOUC i cavity Minion Choricn Ext raembrvonic membranes HEquot mm u mumm wmt Characteristics of Mammals El List El Distinguish marsupials from eutherians Primate Evolution El Characteristics include El Opposable thumbs El Nails not claws El Depth perception El Extended parental care lele gum5221 WWW Great apes our closest ancestors Different views of human origins Hominidae phylogeny Three new genera extend hominid family tree back to 7 mya swarm American January was How is homeostasis maintained in the context ofthe environment Physiological and Behavioral Ecology El Does homeostasis have an evolutionary basis I We ll discuss Nesse and Williams El Physiological and behavioral ecology I Adaptations I Habitat selection I Costbenefit approach I Relate to fitness I Relate to population biology El The study of physiology and responses of organisms to specific environmental factors acting as selective agents El The study of behavioral decisions made in the context of the environment El Resource allocation how organisms acquire and allocate scarce resources to maintenance growth and reproduction throughout its lifetime An iguana common in canopies of Neotropical forests between Tb and Ta it controls its body temperature and activity state by behaviorally varying its exposure to sunny and snaoy regions ll i tne oano The rate of metabolism required to maintain Tb increases in proportion to difference Minimum mu ot nwlubalism Km at which food can be gathered l Amle m mmpmaiurv t T r Lower CIltca Temperature TM Lower tetna Temperature c Cltltca Ecoogtca Temperature p Energetic cost heat to maintain Tb or ATP necessary for locomotion Huvvduesthts hummingbird rind enougn energy ui r re lLu Rubythroated hummingbird range Bre ed ing ran ge Wintering range Benefits El What are benefits to ectothermy El To endothermy Note the inclusion of the population in this concept level required In mainmn novulatinn H H chol required to mzimain organism Level requl man critical lunninns Einlogical anivity Environmental canaicion Ultimate vs Proximate Causes El What determines the best internal condition El Proximate causation is environmental how El Ultimate causation is fitness why El Use cost vs benefit analysis El Cost energy used depletion of fat reserves water lost increased risk of predation opportunity cost El Benefits Measured in terms of energy acquired by foraging increased survival growth or reproductive output Behavior affected by physiological state El Both molded by natural selection El Costs minimized by performing behavior only at favorable times El Benefits maximized Foraging decisions affect energy budget behaviOr M El Where and when to seek food El What to eat El Costsbenefits El mp ms wnfrggmgn 99 mthelrfewiregonte nyrhp 5315302002 html Habitat selection examples El Mountainsides local gradients reflects broad geographic ran e El Segregation along slopes reflects geographic ranges El 4 species of migratory birds 39 studied in central AZ El What determines nest sites El Orangecrowned Warblers vs Virginia s Warblers Physiology Approach Homeostasis Control regulation feedback Temperature Temperature 2nd law of thermodynamics and heat Four step approach to temperature regulation Problem maintain body within certain temperature range Solutions behavior physiology Comparison ectotherms vs endotherms Control amp regulation hypothalamus is the thermostat Rate of reac n 20 30 4o 50 Temperature c e zum SmauerAssanazes Incl Quaium Hw m a m mprleI smsmal changes in impamm cm39vd Mmmn quotWWW Win WM inmsme summit me QCmenpliam Al its Accl matzaton MW m m WWW I Slignvslhz same nutshell WIN quot5quot me in s vke alseasnhal temperature Hinge Vieiabah rale WC 2m Wmm Fund 5 mm Pm icmfc mu c lcnpcniuix Cnndm nn semen smegma Witmu a saw pmwsai ermm ompensaiw Ioncasmval tempuralumdiingei Metabolic compensation o A 8121620242832364044 Temperature 08 Body temperature Q E l Endo vs Ectothermy va Rarhtm may an mmw 39 am lemrlilnmm rs n m as a u mam iumnummrn 43941 Metabolic rates of endotherms amp ectotherms vary with temperature b 5 Note scales E z T439 3 OppOSIte Eg response 3 3 g E n gt lt E 5 E g a 2 5 2 3393 2 1 z 0 30 40 Envitmmucnlal lunpcl39al um Cl kmhienl llml o Hm was calculated by assuming 2008 kJ ofheat are roduced per lite GI pane l magpie as am ures top panel and metabolism of blackbilled and yellowbilled bient temperature varies r of 02 consumed and is expressed as milliWatts per gram of body tissue Hmmawmm 1954 Mama mm m mm mum m mm mum na mm mum mm m mm as 19 73 Ectotherms behaviorally thermoregulate Tmnpcmh39v cc Mr T Mm Nun linear s a 1 Blood flow regulation can help maintain body temperature czl Heart rate is warming gt rate of cooling 39 Cold fish warm fish red 39 fishubl le fish l Al calm sh Counlercunent heel sxwengev FEMA Him In MyMmu 39 bf Skipjack i 39 us pelamis 1 h quot heat exchanger System quot Countercurrent heat exchange 0 Temperature differential along length of exchanger 0 Wolflegs and brain rz 0 Sea gulls and other birds v o i m lt 0 o m E EL m In 0 m t 11 39 e4 39 mm iusers rm cm quoter willow ptarmigans a dense coat of feathers amp rrent heat exchange 2 ummcr winter l 60 40 2ll lf 0 tL 2t 40 Temperature C radient between internal body and external temperature l5 reduced ligand adding insulation same as adding it to your nouse to reduce i eating in Wintere reduces amount oferiergy needed to staywarm if to lose or retain heat Hypothalamus is the vertebrate thermostat HOW Do We IW that Earth s Ancient Stratigraphy ossil record Radiometric dating in Kimard mmnemama Sims Accumulating daughter atoms ur 5 rum m i Multiple Methods Used to Date Strata STRATIGRAPHIC BIOSTRATIGRAPHV RADIONETRIC SECTION DATES leidspal mu 2 and mm Eves als mm M t i i Mlllun years agn LlPh date 724 n4 Mlllmn My am Rnsv date 7254 1 u m Mum wavsagr WW w n and mum My al LlPh date 7 st39unclv usmmanr amples pvuhahlg Bantam mm ladltgwlc lead mm m 715 n n Mllmn WWW lt 2 I o s E I lt ii In HOW Has Earth Changed over Time Unidirectional changes gradual cooling weakening continental drift forces 02 accumulated after prokaryotes evolved ability to split water How long before 02 levels were high enough to support multicellular life Prokaryotes ancestors of bacteria were the rst life 1St eukaryotes depended on free 02 SSS S 3 as Wigwam Mu ncel ular o39qanlsms 2 Fl39si aerobic mama mu pnmoswnmmm Damzna Percenl m messnmav myqen was 4mm x 93m lam 5m V0 mo Fuse Mllllcna 3V vans ago ms to ame 21 s EUkafyOFes compartmentanon and HOW Has Earth Changed over Time complemty Evolution mass extinctions affected y Rapid climate change continental drift volcanism and major shifts in sea levels External events such as meteorite collisions Climate shifts affect diversity 0 Marine mass extinction La 5mm quotkit39smeanlemyeremrg 7 I W ugh JIM H 00 F1ve Map Mass Extinctions annu Numllr ni mu mum niym a my quot e mm SmauerAssanazes inn Phylogenies Ch 25 History of descent W wme Branching tree Speciation events are twigs l Phylogenetic Species Concepts l Phylogenetic Tree I Reflects iesllwi can Vransmn Sclusiosomn are shown as eandihoseihatcan i as a l hypotheses of evolutionary history phylogeny I Monophyletic group n More closely related to each other than to others Tim an a an m Red triangles imlrcAie me i evolulion 0 genes hiocknv the Mm llammissinn ur I1lslavmwa View 1238 Swans Associates inc Sarne Homology tree I Any two features descended from a common ancestral feature I Character feature I Trait particularform of character I Widespread shared traits evolved long ago a Ancestral I Derived traits evolved recently I Unity and diversity Inferring phylogeny l Vertebrate phylogeny 7 to construct phylogeny oftetrapods I Homology amphibians reptiies birds mammals whatwou d you use as an outgroupgt I Ancestral vs derived size of lineage w HI ishrw amsru39rs Cnrlla m I Difficulties yquot L I g I Assumptions 4ch u Descentwith modification u Distant ancestors Widespread traits 1 Recent ancestors more derived traits u Derived traits evolved once amp never lost a Outgroup choice is critical l Selecting and Ordering Traits 4M7 7 0mm Derived Tmlls Part 17 NPan 2 39 w w ninwznwnrr39 mm mmmm xmm uws ms alumsimIZIHL wrung m mm was l Vertebrate Cladogram l g tvykzga we 4 mm 253 l Selecting and Ordering Traits l Vertebrate Cladogram Pl n Trans Par 7 7 7 i llPa 27 u hml W5iw3mn A was a was lt GTquot mm M W W 2 l Selecting and Ordering Traits l Vertebrate Cladogram 17 7mm BelivedTrailsiPanL WPIN mm m n as suns mil 1P1gt up as Flaum 25 i Selectmg and Ordermg Tra1ts Vertebrate Cladogram 4M7 7m Lawrey A D d 1 Mimi W W W 2 mummy a i r r r r I i 2 7 cm m Warp Crowns mm 5 E 39mw m quotquot5quotquot a urea mm mmvwwwm y m Clan canons Uses ofPhylogenies I Conver ent Evolution g I Classifications reflects evolution a Marsupials Tasmanian wolf D Pacenta5 Grey wof I How often have traits evolved I Occupy same niche similar morphology a Success of traits u Tasmanian wolf more closely related to all I Age of neage 3pm marsupials than to grey wol I Evolutionary origins I Monophny a All mammals have common ancestor 39 B39ogeographyv consewat39on a Two wolf species related but not closely mEdICIne A draw From 5th ed1t1or1 i pa39aphyletic 3 I V gmiinECD C in Tlmcvoiuiionaryiciaiionsbipsamongvcricbrales Lizards n Para Birds Ci39ocodilians and snakes Turllus Mammals ElwimliZf gm u ZJEJFe E Polygt F G Mono H Common ancestor of W7 H Common anCESlor hirrls and medilianc i l J cam F mm nimmphvieic gman 7 Common ante minim umwmm awvm rowdili ridsnakes turtles anrlmam ak 1938 Mme in Biology 112 Dr Paradise Exercise 1 How to Record and Present Your Data Graphically Using Excel Introduction In this world of high technology and information overload scientists must communicate effectively and efficiently How can we get our point across to both fellow scientists and nonscientists in a way that is meaningful to both groups To oommunicate effectively scientists must be clear concise and consistent To communicate efficiently scientists must know what data to present in order to emphasize the point they wish to make Numerical results are useful because they help answer a question or test a hypothesis Raw data that you oollect to test a particular hypothesis must be digested in some way and presented not as a jumbled mass of field notes and numbers but as concise and informative tables diagrams or graphs Objective For you to learn and gain perspective on the ways in which raw data may be abstracted and presented in a report and to prepare sample graphs Recording Your Data Writing down a number may seem like a simple thing to do but the numbers that we read from some measuring device are limited in the number of significant digits that we obtain Every piece of equipment that we use to measure with allows us to ascertain the value in question to a certain degree For instance a ruler with centimeters as the smallest gradation can measure to the nearest centimeter We then estimate the last digit in this case would to the nearest millimeter So there is a degree of uncertainty in our estimate of the last digit Let39s say an object is measured and found to be 1269 meters long The rightmost digit is in the millimeter position and is our quotuncertainquot digit There are four significant digits in this measurement which gives us a certain amount of confidence as to the precision and accuracy of the measurement based on the quality of our measuring device Precision comes into play when you measure the same quantity more than once How close does your repeated measure come to the original measurement That is the degree of precision of your instrument Measuring quantities more than once with the ruler described above we might expect to get readings that differ by about 1 millimeter Such a ruler is precise to 1 mm However if we had a ruler that measured to a tenth of a millimeterthat ruler would have one more significant digit than ourfirst ruler would It might also be considered more precise Absorbance of light is measured on a spectrophotometer and while measuring the quantity of light absorbed by a certain solution you want to be sure that the machine is zeroed properly and that you are obtaining the correct reading 80 initially your objective is to check your precision However you may discover that your readings are inaccurate because the machine is not zeroed properly Accuracy is the term used to describe how close any measured value is to the true value In general a more precise measurement will also be more accurate assuming that calibration of the measuring device has been performed properly Presenting Your Data Numerical results are generally useful because they may help answer a question or test a hypothesis Your task is to make certain that readers understand why certain data do or do not answer a given question Usuallythis requires that the raw data be digested and prooessed in some way Presenting data in tabular or graphic form are two methods that scientists use to assist their readers and themselves in interpretation oftheir results Tables and figures should always Page 1 Biology 112 Dr Paradise be labeled with a table or figure number such as quotTable 1quot or quotFigure 3quot Always refer to the table orfigure in the text eitherto point out a trend in the data or to discuss the significance of the data Never put tables or figures into a protocol or writeup without discussing them in the text Tables are generally used to show the relationships between treatments and controls when it is necessaryto present all of the information obtained from an experiment However this method can become cumbersome when large data sets are displayed One way around this is to use graphs which often demonstrate relationships without burdening the reader with large quantities of numbers There are advantages and disadvantages to both styles of presentation Tables are useful when one wants the reader to see the actual numbers They are also useful to show frequency counts of categorical variables As previously mentioned tables can be a disadvantage when one has to present large data sets because it forces the reader to visualize the relationships among many numbers and the complex interactions between many variables That39s where graphs come in When a reader looks at a graph they should be able to quickly grasp the point that is being made The graph should effectively showa trend eg an increase in the measured variable over time or a relationship eg the difference between a control and treatments Graphs generally consist of an independent and a dependent variable The independent variable is generally displayed on the abscissa the xaxis and can be a measured quantity such as time or a category and may be set by the investigator This variable should be unaffected or as the name implies independent of the variables being studied The dependent variable on the other hand is affected by the independent factor under investigation or at least one hypothesizes it is priorto experimentation The dependent variable is graphed against the independent variable so that one can see how the dependent variable changes with changes in the independent variable There are many different ways to graph data Line graphs and histograms are probably the most popular and will be the types you will use most frequently Line graphs show the relationship of a dependent variable to an independent variable when the independent variable is a continuous measurement such as time Fig 1 Histograms or bar graphs are the best way to show frequency distributions of categorical variables The frequency is the number or proportion and is the dependent variable while the various categories used make up the independent variable Let39s say for example that we wanted to test the effects of robin flock size on feeding rates of robins We have hypothesized that larger flocks of birds will be more successful in terms of number of worms caught by each individual Below is a portion ofthe fictional raw data used to construct Table 2 and Figure 1 This table is fairly well organized which is the key when producing tables and graphs This table has titles at the head of each column labels and titles are critical in tables and graphs Always title your graphs and tables so the reader knows what they are examining and label axes and rows and columns so that one can quickly see what variables are presented and determine the scale of numbers However getting back to our raw data table a report that simply included these raw data unaltered would be flawed because it is difficult to extract the significant aspects of these results in this form The first step might be to analyze the field data to determine the number of worms taken per robin for each 30 minutes of hunting time using the following equation Page 2 Biology 112 Dr Paradise of worms capturedmedian of birds in flock total observation time min30 minutes Table A1 Raw data from experiment on flock size and worm capture rate observations Date and Time Number of robins in flock Number of worms taken by entire flock 12 Apr 07050740 1822 16 12 Apr 08000830 67 2 12 Apr 15301635 1420 18 12 Apr 16101630 35 1 13 Apr 07300845 1619 15 13 Apr 07500845 2328 31 13 Apr 08150925 2 3 of robins Table A2 This provides us with a standard result that will permit direct comparisons among the various flocks Table A2 The relation between number of robins in a foraging flock and the average foraging success of individuals in flock Observations made Apr 1213 from 07000900 amp 15001700 Total Number of Median Worms taken Success rate observation time robins in flock number by flock see equation min 70 2 2 3 06 65 35 4 1 01 25 67 65 2 04 45 1420 17 18 14 20 1619 175 15 13 30 1822 20 16 08 55 2328 255 31 07 There are still other ways that this material might have been offered to the reader For example the data in Table 2 could be used to make a scatter diagram Figure 1 Diagrams graphs and charts tend to have a more visual impact than a table and as a result they project their meaning more quickly and dramatically They do so however at the expense of some information that might appear in a table Figure 1 does not allow the reader to determine how long the flocks were watched in order to produce the success rate scores that appear as points on the diagram whereas Table 2 contains this information You as a scientist and writer must decide which of several possible ways of presenting data conveys information most advantageously in relation the question you are asking or hypothesis you are testing Page 3 Biology 112 Dr Paradise Success rate l30 minutes 0 co 0 0 I I I I 0 10 20 30 Median number of robins in flock Figure 1 The correlation between foraging success for worms and number of robins in a flock Using Excel Provided below are examples of graphs created using Microsoft Excel there are two of each graph and one of each is considered high quality while the other is of poor quality In each case the legend provides hints and guidelines for how to professionally create graphs and why the poor quality graphs are of poor quality Figure 2a Tree Size Does Not Affect 20 Ice StornuDamage 18 y 00363x 83809 No of Branches Broken 8 OMJgt Tree Diameter cm Figure 2 Both panels depict the same data However the figure on the left is of much higher quality than the one on the right In particular note in 2a that 1 the sizes of the fonts are large easy to read and of consistent size 2 the area showing the actual data is maximized 3 the contrast is high dark points on a white background 4 the figure number appears in the titlelegend and 5 the axis labels contain the units of measurement In the right panel 1 the fonts are generally smaller and of inconsistent size 2 the data points are light blue on a gray background low contrast 3 the gridlines make it difficult to see the data 4 there is no figure Page 4 Speciation Chapter 23 I Speciation requires definition of species I Include biological morphological genetic and phylogenetic concepts How new species arise I What is critical process or event I What are isolating mechanisms I What mechanisms of evolution facilitate allopatric speciation I Is sympatric speciation common Whatare the mechanisms of sympatric speciation l Gradual separation Increasing 4 Genetic distance 0 Increasing mu mm as l Population allopatry and sympatry mwvuhnm mm m mm W pgvuuanmm mum mumm mm 0 a m mm WWW l i W i WWW lawn Allopatric Speciation I Founder event I What mechanisms may be in play I Total genetic isolation I Geographic separation A39l39lopatrlc speCIatIon The Kaibab squirrel Sciurus aberti kaibabensis left became isolated in the Grand Canyon 10000 years ago Features have gradually evolved that separate it from close relative the Abert squirrel S abertiabertl not yet separate species Allopatric speciation in Nor1h American freshwater fish called shiners mxsmmh Mi 7quot v WW mm W meu Mm p quot Hawaiian picture winged Drosophila Flmum whW DrosophIa Number or species 11 p attirewinged Dmyph a Vumd an an island m island Numby m Dmpcsa wander mm ur 5 Ham 2 m mm i m rm 1 thin n m an mm mm mm man u m m rm 0 m m m m m w y mpw m m wmth mun venixmii m opmmw mmme l Parapatric speciation Allopatric without the barrier I Strong selection weak gene flow I Clines hybrid zones Orioles BULLOCK39S ORIOLE BALTIMORE e Two pop ns may Q w hybridize with some gene flow Hooded Crows Corvus corone cornX and Carrion Crows C corone corone are subspecies with a narrow hybrid zone corona calnix l Yellow Monkey Flower or Wild Snapdragon Mimulus guttatus Copper tolerant 39 39 plants crossed f gt with nontolerant gt plants lead to early v death in hybrids Tolerance gene and gene causing hybrid inviability were either same orwere linked Sympatric speciation No geographic separation Polyploidy Hosthabitat specificity mm mm mm llsolating Mechanisms Prezygotic isolation Postzygotic isolation prevents fertilization prevents development Alpple maggot fly Rhagoetis pomonela Host speci city a form ofisolation Mistakes in oviposition site selection 9 sympatric populations that don t interbreed due to high delity to host plant 42 43 Latitude m Polyploidy Eilia aliquanta amp G quot 1 minor can produce G my malior which has 18 chromosomes 9 from each parent RaphanobraSSIca Wild thage mfgfi l ts wl radish 2n 18 39F1 hybrid 2n 18 39Nondisjunctjon results in 4n 36 Selfel em39le can produce offspring even ifthereis only one 10272008 Chemical Ener Relatlonshlp 0f 4 systems I Fat carbohydrategyprotein provide I Respiration circulation digestion excretion EEnergy I How are they integrated to maintain aBuilding39bl ks for biosynthesis 3 homeostasis I How is information used by NS and ES to We WWI regulate multiple systems at I Nutrition ingestion amp digestion factie ifh g e I Problem amp Solutions in Control amp Regulation u l 2 a J 5 mmmumm mu an Digestion to Absorption J Absorbable monosaccharides Hormones are involved in digestive feedback loops ur av Flata 51113 10272008 oz Fuel mm during m Ibnnxph39v 17 in in Fuel mm dnljng Ihe pmtibimptiv pen39nd I Blood un gti1eu imam In circumng nsuir L Reguating Glucose in l Siygsevi z si s Bums Dion gluocse E quotj I Insulin helps m glucose enter mm m ceiis B ngg 3275235322 I Lack ofinsulin more important than presence of on Wehassp gluim WW glucag Brenkihvirilli L 39 NerVOUS SYSTem Wh zmgunlniivgw uirqmmumqn uses oniy giucose 39 Fuel metabolism summary Relationship of 4 systems 39Aj sorptwe process I Toxins are in food water and air How uFuel molecules move toward storage iS integration of physieiegieai Systems DGlucose preferred for all cells important in detoxification I Postabsorptive I Respiration circulation digestion excretion CIStorage molecules broken down EiGiueose preferred for N3 I How is information used to regulate multiple systems I PI L Overview Excretion amp SaIt Water balance maintains cell Balance SizeShal m I i iirgeriiitimud sail distilledwaterl DMaintain salts eliminate N wastes mm W IComparative approach quotquot quot quot w R R t ijFiItration active transport osmosis a IControl amp Regulation V 7 7 v J iCose ties to circulation p x i 2 10272008 5 ii z ZnkF7mm Economics of Nwaste Df r Nitrogenous wt m W zsm m wastes CN kJmol Toxrcrty Igztyte Ammonia 0 378 m Urea 05 638 Un39c acid 125 1932 mmmmwr mammu uranium mwwm s b 1 An emlabrin 39 1 Sea Water amp Body Fluids Osmoiamy cf exivaseiiula iiuid ilme seawater Osmniarny m wiman um u as 5m 39 Earthworm excretion Insect spider amp scorpion excretion Quinner BlaJdeI Tubuic Memeplu dmm A sum mK39anwwrw kmth mmwmm mmmmwu mom Coiiecixng Nephndioyore mimics kephrostcme mm mm We at in we as an 515 Ecosystems Components Energy Flow and Matter Cycling Global patterns Energy and productivity Matter cycles What Sustains Life of Earth 0 One way flow of energy Cycling of matter nutrients r What factors affect Terrestrial Ecosystems Aquatic Ecosystem s Sunlight Light penetration Tem peratur depth Precipitation Currents Latitudedistance Di 5 ed nutrient frum Equamr concentrations N Altit 3 F 5 quot Temperature Climate andwm m mm is productIVItym39iwv mm wee er mm 7n pmcmmon 1mm pwwwgeogoucbcca Va 5 a 5 w 5 20 25 3 physgeog contents 91 ern1 Tumpcraluva c Equator tons at carbon hxtd pcr mmn pur ycar El 0 n z 5 El 21mgquot Hun D Ill warm gt3m a ma simummu um we I s hinme distributions 539 c we Tmpiml ever Inmimi ti El Inyiml mum itquot l Tundn s a Lnd mmtms A lupuiul madam ltm39sl l i mquot 1m mp ii Cult arm E meal mm a we Sinaukrmiitls m 1 Percentage of Earth s surface area 0 m mn Cumhwnml huh mm a W WWW 1 Auxmum O fullwaudln W W Earth NPP u Ivmwmlv grass ami mumqu m mum m rmme wanmnl furn mm dudduuu mm mam mmm m s mpma mm m and mum Lam my I u Lyn ullmh 1mm i L 5 I v r m hexonunwnmnu 1m pn mn mum Primary produ mg c m2 I day um 150 mamas lgt250 a was SmauarAm aIes m Ocean currents set up by wind M I T mmmr A H H J r mm le a M m 39 Ek m 5H em enm quotLockcdrw39nquot water p ays 3 Very man role m the hydmlogica cycle Hydrologic cycle nmhels gm he mlauve amnums may express as mm w 5 mm m cxdxangv eaves exchanges rake plum a the ocean surface C cycle influenced by humans Aummphexe mm mm f 5 6 m m as Dekvrestanm 7 MM 1 I u 11 Sr 39 chrst S mammal r um 21x Carbonate muwmls r m nth 1mmle s are 10 5g Carbon Cycle Delomstation Tenesuial organisms Fossil fuels 11 2 100 50 Gal 155 39 Oceans Oceans 100 an LIVE 5 Flgum ssAo mmmummuw uammnwm Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Are Increasing w a 0 co cancenlralions lppml m gt o 53 o n I i l l 1960 1970 1980 1990 zoom 2005 Year mam151mmquot nmmwmmmwmammrwmwm Clearcutting alters global Ccycle Burning coal alters global Ccycle immunm a Mnnwmtms Atmospherlc N2 Dennri Elological lnduslrial Denim licallon xal39on Iication Fixation 40 44 ml 40 6 Global Ncycle HF 89 Figure 55 Algal bloom in English stream Acid rain damage to spruce firforest in the Blue Ridge Mountains NC Gulf o Mexgu w An Flynn an In 4 Atmosphere n n U M mamquot ismmucu an no mo 4 MANN animus y 3 Fluxes in t h e N cycle Magnum Km Brnurdwa u unranznt my ux is Shawn u mu m mu 1 mr mm m hlip www ldeo Columbia eduedudeeseeslifdshdesmtrogenicycle gm Disturbance Communities are dynamic Species richness and composition change over time Abiotic factors predation and succession 1 vs 2 Succession Bare ground little soil what disturbances Soil present some Organisms must build soil organisms lichens small plants special adaptations what disturbances V V V Life history traits Very slowmltlally pioneers late invaders Alders make environment more favorable for conifers 300 Alder trees fix nihogen in lhe soil paving the way for the on llerous forest Bntrat39mn Nltrugen In mineral Ball Year 200 tat Pioneer plants Aldus Tmmmn spruce stage ares a 1995 SinauerAmlates int By studying forest stands of different ages we can assemble a picture of succession mi i r tiecologyiorestiecologyisuccesslon n quotHippo 5 F biomass Mg ha a Lichens invade bare rock e sigma Photo Ecrvlzc Grasslands are dynamic httpwwwwor1dbiomescomkiomesgrasslmd htm The Realm of Ecology Organisms Populations Communities Ecosystems Biosphere g Key Concepts Pop Ecology A population is Population ecologists study how and why a population changes spatially amp temporally Density dispersion dynamics Per capita population growth rate Density dependence amp independence Life history traits are 13E Uniform elephants creosote bush dandelions Flg 52 p 155 19w vomimmw mswlawmm in ms quotMirrrv mm Agestructure affects pop n growth Life tables Mortalityreproduction change with age Questions Maximum age How survivorship changes with age When is mortality highest Male Female Male Female ge distributions anon Past and future age group man 80 Survivorship curves amp life tables forecast o ulation d namics Wp p y W C Eumpean Homo Sapiens USA 7D 80 I l l l l l I l l l x 50 2040508010013579H13024681012 40 Age years Age years Age months 30 20 1D 10 5 5 in m 5 u 5 M 39 MIWSO WSW mummy mimm LIFEle Flam1544 Vlrl klrM hrl vn V a 39 2000 1800 1600 g PopulationiDynamics Population change over time Relate structure to dynamics Darwin recognized Malthus work as important to evolution Numnev cl pups born 6 o c 0 196062 64 56 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 up 5 Ram 5410an u Mimmwmmw V mm a m m U s Simple exponential growth N1NOB DI E N1 N0 NOBr NODr N01r NOEr I NT RT 39 N0 em 39 No b d r r per capita population growth rate b per capita birth rate birthsind Plus immigration d per capita mortality deathsind Plus emigration dNdt r o N instantaneous rate of change g b and d affect growth rate a U50 U2 ZUUEIEI Bun B D D M 15mm 5 5 3mm mum am a a 2m Suuu W n 5 m 15 2D 25 u 5 2U 25 mg mg Buzbuz mug 25 2D 139 gt15 w 15 a E m gm 5 5 D 5 i 15 2 25 u 5 m 15 2m 25 quotwe lime Aphid population growth r 7 052 Actual vs Predicted Aphid roh 200 gt a 0100 I Predicted C 50 0 0 10 Days 20 30 Limited resources amp logistic model 7 Pop n growth affected by carrying capacity Whatcletermines K b decreases d increases as density increases When bd density remains constant dNdt 0 dNdt r n N K NK When N is small KNK is close to 1 When N is large KNK is close to 0 Assumptions Fopulahon size Exponential and Logistic Growth Population m lama qui Growth rate varies with N dNdt r K NK N 0 KVNi K 1 N population density DD vs DI 7 Density dependence Limits to growth Density independence Effect on species does not depend on density What factors Responses to high density b and cl change Disturbance DI in D D pop ns Dispersal Meta o ulations Disturbances may keep p p e pop ns below K 39 iscrete pop ns Dynamics partially a dependent Imw4gt Factors to consider I Seinenlina euicrons j Usuaiiy lacks buiieniies Large close patches have higher g probability of occupancy 0 0 O O o O O O 39 i QM e O 0 Frequency of occupancy low m high Paicn SlZe affects occupancy Life history traits Birth growth reproduction death my m 1 gt D Efforts are divided among stages Hm denWAo3252ESSZLCUWW Tradeoffs and constraints Number vs size of offspring Number vs parental care Reproduction vs growth 273 477 Number ufpalches p2i4 W2 Blood Glucose Insulin and Diabetes Bio 112 Dr Paradise What are normal levels of blood glucose and why does it need to be regulated so tightly 0 8090 mgdl before breakfast 0 120140 mgdl during rst hour after meal 0 Back to normal within two hours after last absorption of carbohydrates 0 Too low and brain tissue will not be able to function When is insulin secreted When there is an abundance of energy in blood glucose primarily but also amino acids Causes storage of excess carbohydrates where and as what Also promotes uptake of amino acids to be converted to proteins It increases 10x within 35 minutes of acute elevation of blood glucose This spike declines quickly but secretion increases again for another hour as insulin is synthesized Feedback is rapid in secretion level and cessation as related to blood glucose levels Excess amino acids may stimulate insulin secretion to a smaller degree Some hormones such as growth hormone and cortisol can stimulate insulin secretion long term stimulation can exhaust beta cells causing diabetes mellitus Where is it made 0 Beta cells of pancreas o Halflife of about 6 minutes in plasma essentially cleared 15 minutes after release 0 When bound to target receptors it does not degrade as rapidly Activation of target cell insulin receptors in about 80 of all cells 7 but primarily muscle and adipose cells which causes subsequent effects 0 High permeability to and usage of glucose glucose transport protein GLUT4 is released from vacuoles then inserts itself into cell membrane High permeability to amino acids Storage of glycogen in liver and muscles in absence of exercise after a meal Converted to glycerol in adipose tissues to be attached to fatty acids later to make fat What does insulin do in the liver 0 Promotes activities of enzymes involved in glycogen formation 0 Inhibits liver phosphorylase which breaks down glycogen o Glucose is phosphorylated once in liver cells preventing escape through open glucose transport molecu e 0 When quantity of glucose is more than can be stored in liver as glycogen insulin promotes conversion of excess glucose into fatty acids which are transported to adipose tissue as VLDL 0 Liver thus absorbs 23 of glucose absorbed from gut then releases it as insulin falls this buffers increases and decreases in blood glucose levels How does insulin affect brain 0 It does not brain cells are permeable to glucose without insulin present 0 Blood glucose must be maintained at certain levels to provide energy needs of brain 0 2050 mgdl causes hypoglycemic shock progressive nervous irritability fainting convulsions and nally coma o In response to low blood glucose hypothalamus causes secretion of epinephrine which causes breakdown of glycogen in liver and fats in adipose tissue How does insulin affect fat metabolism 0 It decreases utilization of fat as glucose is used instead 0 Promotes fatty acid synthesis in liver and glycerol production in adipose tissues 0 Inhibits release of fatty acids into blood by inhibiting an enzyme 0 Promotes uptake of glucose into fat cells then converted to glycerol How does insulin affect protein metabolism and growth 0 Causes active transport of many amino acids 0 Insulin increases translation of messenger RNA thus forming proteins 0 Over longer time periods insulin increases transcription rate of selected DNA sequences 0 Insulin inhibits catabolism of proteins and amino acids via inhibition of gluconeogenesis Pancreas decreases insulin secretion Lack of insulin reverses all above effects of glycogen storage Lack of insulin activates phosphorylase as does glucagons which splits glycogen into glucose Fat breakdown and use are greatly enhanced in absence of insulin which increases circulating concentrations of fatty acids and glycero As blood glucose levels fall what happens 0 O O 0 What is diabetes mellitus and how is it caused o Caused by diminished secretion by beta cells type I primarily but type II if beta cells are exhausted or insulin resistance type II Heredity is an important factor for type I diabetes increases susceptibility of beta cells to viruses favors development of autoimmune antibodies against beta cells or causes degeneration of beta cells Obesity may cause beta cells to be less responsive to stimulation by glucose Obesity also may decrease number of insulin receptors in target cells or may cause cells to be less sensitive to insulin thus making insulin less effective This lack of insulin or insulin resistance has four major effects decreased utilization of glucose by body cells increased levels of blood glucose increased utilization of fats causing abnormal fat metabolism and deposition of cholesterol in arterial walls 7 atherosclerosis and depletion of proteins Long term effects include effects on the nervous system swelling impaired protein production circulatory system atherosclerosis heart disease and kidneys kidney disease What are early symptoms of diabetes 0 Excessive urination excessive water drinking excessive eating loss of weight and lack of energy 0 The latter three are caused by failure of glucose and protein utilization What are effects of elevated blood glucose levels 0 Loss of glucose in urine when blood glucose gt 180 mgdl excretory system 0 Increase of glucose in kidney tubules increases water loss lots of sweet urine 0 Increase in osmotic pressure in extracellular uid causing cells to dehydrate What are effects of excess fatty acids in plasma 0 Promotes liver conversion of fatty acids into phospholipids and cholesterol 0 These are released into blood as lipoproteins increase up to 3x in blood in absence of insulin 0 High lipid concentration of cholesterol in LDL leads to rapid development of atherosclerosis arteriosclerosis and severe coronary heart disease 12022008 Communities amp Ecosystems Emergent properties of ecosystems Why did trees begin to grow when wolves were OAn ecological community is reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park 5 An ecosystem is o Relate interactions to Acquisition of energy and nutrients Limiting resources Reproduction and population growth m Adaptation and evolution Distribution of cottonwood in YNP Areas with and 1 ti Gall ti C t oca onsm a n anyon Wlthout Elks thin Yellowstone Ecosystem Top ngnt Locations or radiotracked elk Red 7 Wolves present Bottom right vegetation map of same area violet arid blue areas are mostly Conifer ores s Green yellow orange aridred have M increasing composition of native grasses 12022008 Change in elk habitat use correlated Indirect effects of wolves with tree growth Sgt What are 6 types of interactions Competition W0quot rt a QB g a Ti i i Z Competition 4 resource Think of factors that limit population growth gradient How do they avoid competition How does one organism exclude the other for a i i FhVCE39WiY sedge resource quot Predation amp parasitism 2 i r i i Mutualism commensalism 0 H39Suridnw 1 I amensalism 0 39 Ila 39Killi sh is aimi Competltlve 9i v m 39 b competltlon im 5 3 sm 5 x habltat 9 ms 5 t in m m i m E ii 3 5n 5 E ii quot iws g m y m Izimnl mum m 12022008 minimum gnaiuimm Effects of direct EcOm etitio in fkilli sh Productivity within an ecological system Quaternary Consumers carnivores Tertiary Consumers econdary Consumers Herbivores Primary Consumers Ecological Pyram s Pyramid of energy flow Ecological ef ciency Pyramid of biomass Trophic Levels Producers autotrophs i Consumers Primary herbivores Secondary carnivores mnivores Detritivores and decomposers The Georgia saltmarsh 12022008 Food webs interaction dia rams amp more lt dg Slmpll ed Georgla saltmarsh foodweb WW mm W m r J 39 3 7 quuws Herbivarzs carnivores 7 n 7 7 v Blmk f I m sinuuincukigrm gtF iauiliaupers SDIdErs v v 1 Kaiyttms 7Wrens ko 39 ow insecls Dragon ies 39impun K m Poeciliidad adnid e l E quot Cuirtlmsm Trim by grungy r antiwarrs 39 quot K quotW dlzrxrtsi c Fiddier crabs Mud crabs Matt pum V 39 Uttie i rrans Clapper rail Larva M u n5 539 Lian Musseis Raccoon Filamcmmis r Sea snaiis gem alga Guaplankm ixii Oligcchaetzwouus r rim invartmphi W15 ronum 5m 41 mmm Priivchaels wmms mmpuumipmmionkim V J genera minim Food webs matter and energy 1n Energy ow 1n the GA saltmarsh 7 3500 323 5 I Planthoppers k 32 mm 3 mu quot W ds mm mm WWW a E2505 E 2050 220 gm E 4 jimu 7D 0 70 0 50B 48 9 a E 5 S on 7 i 7 eansumpuun Assimilation Production Respiration Feces Productivity concepts mm Enegzegcog mongh Gross primary productivity GPP E Pimlnpynlhesrs eggs Stem Net primary productivity N PP y gt Secondary productivity 539 simiiation Must energi i5 tax to mpimmu m H mm m u mwm kbpimuma s dary uirnuvyxt y I


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