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Biology of Plants

by: Novella Considine

Biology of Plants BIO 103

Marketplace > Davidson College > Biology > BIO 103 > Biology of Plants
Novella Considine
GPA 3.94


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Novella Considine on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 103 at Davidson College taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/221253/bio-103-davidson-college in Biology at Davidson College.


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Date Created: 10/11/15
BIO 103 The AIDS Pandemic Review 1 October 9 2007 The following are BRIEF answers only Questions 1 20 2 points each Answer all 20 l 2 E 4 V39 0 gt1 A protein is a polymer of amino acids DNA is a polymer of nucleotides Describe two differences between DNA and RNA a Thymine versus uracil b Deoxyribose versus ribose All viruses contain a A capsid and a genome A genome and an envelope A capsid and DNA A membrane and a cytoplasm A cytoplasm and a genome 0305 In HIV infected people HIV can be found most commonly in what four bodily uids a isemen b iblood c ivaginal uids d ibreast milk What type of amino acid side chains would you expect to find on the surface of a protein embedded in a cell membrane a Cysteine b Hydrophobic c Charged d Hydrophilic e Polar Enzymes are a DNA 9 0 b Lipids c Carbohydrates d Proteins e Amino acids De ne HIV Human Immunode ciency Virus De ne AIDS Acquired Immunode ciency Syndrome In doublestranded DNA the two strands of DNA are held together by a Covalent bonds b Ionic bonds c Hydrogen bonds d Hydrophobic bonds e None of the above In salt NaCl or sodium chloride the sodium and chloride are held together by a Covalent bonds b Ionic bonds c Hydrogen bonds d Hydrophobic bonds e None of the above De ne opportunistic infection Infection caused by a pathogen that a functional immune system can control Becomes a problem if the immune system is compromised List two viral enzymes that are required for HIV replication Protease Integrase Reverse transcriptase De ne codon and anticodon Codon 7 3 base sequence in coding region of DNA or mRNA that codes for an amino acid Anticodon 7 3 base sequence on a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a codon De ne mRNA and tRNA mRNA 7 messenger RNA singlestranded RNA copy of the coding region of a gene tRNA 7 transfer RNA small RNA molecule that possesses a speci c anticodon and is charged with a speci c amino acid ON De ne translation Process in which ribosomes read mRNA constructing a polypeptide based on the mRNA codons l De ne transcription Process in which mRNA is made from DNA through the action of RNA polymerase 00 For HIV translation occurs a In the nucleus ofa host cell b In the cytoplasm of a host cell c Within the Viral capsid d EXtracellularly e b and c O What are the three domains of life a iEukarya b iBacteria c iArchaea N O List three organelles found in eukaryotic cells a Many answers Questions 21 24 10 points each Answer 3 out of 4 21 Suppose you wanted to alter HIV so that it infected human liver cells instead of human T helper cells Which Viral gene and protein would you alter Why Alter the enV gene which codes for gp120 and gp41 gp120 binds to the receptor CD4 allowing HIV to enter the cell and begin the infection By altering the coding sequence of the gene the amino acid sequence of the protein would be altered and thus the shape of the protein would be altered To allow infection of liver cells one would need to alter the env gene such that the 22 Brie y explain the mode of action of AZT Structurally AZT is very similar to the base T except that AZT has an N3 group attached to the 3 C instead of an 70H group As a result of this difference when AZT is added to a growing strand of DNA polymerase cannot add additional bases to it AZT then serves as a chain terminator 23 A strand of DNA has a 5 end and a 3 end Explain The carbons of the deoxyribose sugars of DNA are number 15 Subsequent nucleotides are linked together such that the 3 C of one nucleotide is attached to the 5 C of the next nucleotide As a result of this arrangement one end of a piece of DNA has a free 5 C and the other end has a free 3 C 24 Our immune system often is said to have memory What is meant by this term After the initial exposure to a foreign antigen T cells and B cells specific for the antigen remain in the body When the body is reexposed to that antigen these memory T and B cells can produce a much stronger response much more quickly than occurred during the initial exposure Questions 25 27 15 points each Answer 2 out of 3 25 The primary receptor for HIV is the CD4 molecule HIV also must interact with a secondary receptor or coreceptor to enter cells One of the most important co receptors is a protein known as CCRS Some individuals possess alleles of the CCR5 gene that contain a 32 basepair deletion Explain at a molecular level the effect of this deletion Explain how this deletion would affect HIV The 32 basebair deletion in the CCR5 gene means that the resulting CCR5 mRNA will be lacking 32 basepairs and the resulting protein will be missing many amino acids Additionally because the deletion is not a multiple of three bases the translational reading frame will be altered The produced protein then will have a different structure and will not function properly


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