Intro Cultural Ant
Intro Cultural Ant ANT 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennie Morissette on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 101 at Davidson College taught by Eriberto Lozada in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/221256/ant-101-davidson-college in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Davidson College.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
ANT 101 Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology Fall 2004 MWF 1030 7 1120 Chambers 1027 Prof Eriberto P Lozada Jr Of ce Hours M W F 930 7 1030 am Of ce Carnegie 01 T Th 1000 7 1115 am or by appointment Telephone 7048942035 Email erlozadadaVidsonedu Web httpwwwdavidsonedupersonalerlozada Lecture Notes 25 August 2004 Anthropology Origins Nature vs Culture Science Origins of the discipline colonial encounters administration 7 law and tradition Lewis Henry Morgan science of humanity 7 nature vs culture evolutionism rationality and cultural diversity 4 elds of Anthropology 0 Physical quot r 39 J aka 39 39 39 39 39 quot r 39 focus is on how physical features shape human behavior measure and record physical traits of living people or skeletons fossils ie forensic anthropology observation of nonhuman primates as giving clues to the connection between the biological and the cultural in humans Archaeology focus is on how material culture shapes and reflects human behavior especially prehistoric societies record and analyze artifacts left behind by past societies observation of material culture gives clues to the social institutions and cultural practices of societies especially those without written records Linguistics focus is on how humans communicate measure and compare language use written and spoken comparison of language use helps explain social institutions and cultural practices Social Anthropology aka cultural anthropology focus is on contemporary societies and culture participant observer joining an existing social group trying to be with the people without interfering with their activities direct analysis of social institutions and cultural practices Objectivity the stuff of science distance between observer and thingperson observed re ected in technical language discourse and normalization emic analysis of socialcultural phenomena in terms of the internal structural or functional elements of a particular system etic analysis of socialcultural phenomena in isolation from a particular system or in relation to predetermined general concepts Prof Eriberto P Lozada Jr Office Chambers B12 Telephone 7048942035 ANT 101 Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology Spring 2009 MWF 1030 7 1120 Chambers 1027 Office Hours M W 9307 1030 am T Th 9007 1000 am or by appointment Email erlozadadaVidsonedu Web httpwwwdavidsonedupersonalerlozada Lecture Notes 25 March 2009 Cosmology Science and Religion EvansPritchard The Notion of Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events the concept of witchcraft provides the Azande with a natural philosophy by which the relations between men and unfortunate events are explained and a ready and stereotyped means of reacting to such events p 18 7 witchcraft as a religious system and the issue of theodicy witchcraft is also part of the everyday Zande world there is nothing remarkable about a witch 7 you may be one yourself and certainly many of your closes neighbors are witches p 19 not people with pointed hats problem of translation people including EvansPritchard have translated this kind of cultural practices as witchcraft in English 7 but the implications are very different the example of the boy who knocked his foot against a stump of wood the stump was not caused by witchcraft what was caused was why he struck his foot against that particular stump on that particular occasion and why the sore festered after that particular incident as opposed to other incidents the example of the granary Zande people know that granaries collapse because the wooden supports are eaten away by termites they also know that people sit under the granaries to get into the shade EvansPritchard says We have no explanation of why the two chains of causation intersected at a certain time and in a certain place for there is no interdependence between them p 23 perhaps EP is wrong 7 we would call it bad luck fate improper adherence to OSHA standards but for the Zande they would call it witchcraft witchcraft then can be seen as a theory of causation we refer to science as explaining causality and science is developed as a body of knowledge through empirical observation Zande also empirically observe events and recognize a plurality of causes natural 7 what witchcraft provides is a social explanation Theoretical Interlude religion as a system of knowledge is often compared with two other systems magic and science witchcraft was normally assigned to the realm of magic in the early 20 century EvansPritchard and other anthropologists contribution was to move witchcraft and other similar practices of nonWestem societies into the realm of religion science rational mastery of the universe 7 science as explaining the workings of the universe in a way that is referred to as rational using experimental techniques Bronislaw Malinowski anthropologist of the early 20Lh century saw magic as the way that primitive people attain a kin others have called natural science 395 Religion d of rational mastery of their surroundings or what understanding of magic and science as manipulating nature magic is used to do things as is science and technology 7 magic and science focus in on the how question religion seeks to explain things focuses on the Vvhy question magic among as a natural science is then a cultural method of systematizing knowledge religion was also seen as a premodem way of systematizing knowledge LeviStrauss science of the concrete vs science of the abstrac science of the concrete myth ritual practices taboo serve as a system of knowledge gained from experience myth ritual taboo religion perpetuates that body of knowledge through time for a particular society39 modern science fall under the realm of science of the abstract primitive humans acted as bricoleur 7 an arranger of things rearranged based on experience the structures of mythical thought are built upon through tting together events or rather the remains of events modern science is built upon hypotheses and eones from Leviticus 15 27 Say to the people oflsrael When any man has a discharge from his body his discharge is unclean And this is the law ofhis uncleanness for a discharge whether his body runs with his discharge or his body is stopped from discharge it is uncleanness in him Every bed on which he who has the discharge lies shall be unclean39 and everything on which he sits shall be unclean And any one who touches his bed shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening And whoever sits on anything on which he who has the discharge has sat shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening And whoever touches the body of him who has the discharge shall wash his clothes and bathe himself in water and be unclean until the evening from US Lacrosse Women s Rules 2002 Rule 7F Players may not wear jewelry on the eld of play except for Medicalert jewelry with information visible which must be taped securely to the player Barrettes are legal as long as they do not endanger other players The umpire has the power to rule any decoration as dangerous to other players to remove it from the eld of play and to penalize it as a minor foul If there is blood on any part of a player s uniformpersonal equipment medical personnel should determine whether the blood has saturated the uniformequipment enough to require a change In the absence of medical personnel the umpires will make this determination A uniform is considered saturated when blood has soaked through the uniform to the player s skin or is capable of being transferred to another player The same saturation criteria should be applied to a player s personal equipment stick gloves knee brace etc If a uniform shirt is changed the player s new number must be recorded in the score book before she reenters the game Prof Eriberto P Lozada Jr Office Carnegie 01 Telephone 7048942035 ANT 101 Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology Fall 2004 MWF 1030 7 1120 Chambers 1027 Office Hours M W F 930 71030 am T Th 930 71115 am or by appointment Email erlozadadaVidsonedu Web httpwwwdavidsonedupersonalerlozada Lecture Notes 25 October 2004 Ritual Ritual is a culturally constructed system of symbolic communication It is constituted of patterned and ordered sequences of words and acts often expressed in multiple media whose content and arrangement are characterized in varying degree by formality conventionality stereotypy rigidity condensation fusion and redundancy repetition SJ Tambiah think of all the cultural ideas associated with the performance of ritual authority hierarchy life cycles etc Victor Turner ritual as social drama public occasions wherein a significant crisis emerges and is resolved Myerhoff calls these social dramas religioninthemaking for in them the Center people are agreeing upon and making authoritative the essential ideas that define them In these drams they develop their collective identity their interpretation of their world themselves and their values As well as being social dramas the events are definitionalceremonies performances of identity sancrified to the level of myth p 32 Van Gennep and rituals as passages through life cycles rites of initiation three phases of ritual 0 separation o liminality period of communitas o and reincorporation Tumer s perspective on society 7 social structure and culture arises as a result of inherent con ict within society contrasts with previously dominant perspective of society and culture as creating social equilibrium think of Tylor s definition of culture and its role in maintaining social equilibrium 7 Culturetaken in its wide ethnographic sense is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law custom and any other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society how is con ict resolved Turner points to moments of liminality where communitas antistructure is achieved a relationship between concrete historical idiosyncratic individuals a moment in and out of time religion is one way societies stay together resolving con icts inherent to social order think of Shmuel and other Center people s attitude towards Shmuel in Chapter 2 symbols key way that religions resolve con ict because of the multiplicity of individual meanings ANT 101 Introduction to Sociocultural Anthropology Spring 2004 MWF 830 7 920 Chambers 2084 Prof Eriberto P Lozada Jr Office Hours M W F 1030 7 1130 am Office Carnegie 01 T Th 1000 7 1115 am or by appointment Telephone 7048942035 Email erlozadadaVidsonedu Web httpwwwdavidsonedupersonalerlozada Lecture Notes 25 February 2004 A I39T 39Au I r Why study economic processes in anthropology 0 Production consumption and exchange are all cultural products 0 mode of production model in Miller shows how social structure technology culture and political structure are deeply imbedded in economic practices we will deal with globalization later we will also focus more on exchange and consumption I will return to modes of production later as well Formalist neoclassical o universalist approach to economics 0 based on the logic of using scarce means to achieve alternate ends gt quotrational actionquot economic human who makes rational decisions in using resources and maximizes return emphasis on individual actors exercising choice emphasis on economic behavior instead of economic institutions utility supply and demand concept of utility subjective satisfaction measured relatively in the form of rankings prefer one thing over another price determined by interrelationship between supply and demand rational individuals make decisions based on such ideas diminishing returns opportunity costs and maximization 7 all these are seen as leading to best combination of factors of production and best usage of resources market in context of free competition demand and supply automatically determine price the market is impersonal aggregate action is deterministic critiques as formalist universalists they are ahistorical formalist approaches only work in Western cultures that emphasize individual self interest formalist approaches are also insensitive to diversity of social formations and cultural meanings 7 they do not account for social structural institutional issues such as the ow of informatio n through social organizations and the impact of institutional arrangements families firms and bureaucracies Substantivist institutionalist relativist approach to economics perspective emphasizes that social institutions and the relationship between social and economic processes must be part of the study of economics starts with the assumption that there are cultural variations of economic practices the economy is seen as an quotinstituted processquot shaped by social structures and cultural forms
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