Psychology 101 Week 1 Notes
Psychology 101 Week 1 Notes Psychology 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Apichaya Sangiamputtakoon on Sunday October 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at University of Washington taught by Jacqueline Pickrell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/11/15
Psychology Week 1 Notes mixed with chapter 1 notes Note I will not be posting Dr Pickrell39s slides since we can all find that on canvas and it would be plagiarizing She has also posted some recordings of her lectures online as well These are my own notes that l have combined with my chapter notes that I hope you will find useful Wednesday September 30 2015 IntroPsych101 Slides 120 Psychology The scientific study of the behavior and mind 0 Behavior External reactions actions that are directly observable Example If someone is crying then you can observe their facial expressions or describe how they39re crying 0 Mind Internal mental state It is a process that cannot be directly observed Example Being sad is a mental state that cannot be directly observed but we can see external behaviors If someone is crying we can infer that they are sad because that39s what most people do when they39re sad 0 How does our mind function 0 How do humans perceive themselves and the world around them 0 How does mental illness occur malfunction of the mind 0 There are many subfields in psychology 0 Psychology is a science so the scientific approach is important Scientific Approach 0 Answers questions and tests our beliefs o It gathers and evaluates empirical evidence 0 Empirical evidence evidence gained through experience and observation 0 Important in overcoming bias and random personal experiences ex My friend did this so it must work for me 0 It39s very common for people to discard evidence that doesn39t fit with their initial beliefs c We must overcome bias in order to see truths and facts as they are 0 Critical Thinking skills are a must Dr Pickrell specifically mentioned that it39s important for us to be successful notjust in her class but in life 0 Critical Thinking Taking an active role in understand thing the world Don39tjust take someone39s word for it really try to understand if something makes sense or not Often skeptical of things Ex What does this information mean How can I use it in my life If this is true then it means this Thursday October 1S t 2015 lntroPsych101 Slides 2133 Goals of Psychology 0 Describe how people and animals behave 0 Explain understand causes of those behaviors 0 Control influence behavior after understanding said behaviors 0 Application use what we have learned in our lives Often overlooked yet still very important ex Dr Pickrell mentioned that cavities are contagious l was surprised to learn about this since I have never heard of this If this is true then it39s a waste of research because many dentists and every day people don39t know of this fact Research 0 There are 2 kinds of research Basic Research Learning why and how people think and behave 0 Applied Research Seeks a specific practical problems from what we have learned through basic research Ex There was a plane that crashed in upstate New York and more than 20 people witnessed the crash but all had different descriptions of the plane Psychology uses the knowledge of memory process gained from basic research to figure out what the plane probably looked like applied research Levels of Analysis There are 3 levels of analyzing in psychology Biological Level Analyzing how biological functions like genetics or neurons affect our behavior and mind 0 Psychological Level Analyzing how our moods and feelings may affect our decision making 0 Environmental Level Analyzing how our past and current events have an impact on our behavior Nature Vs Nurture Debate 0 The debate is an idea of what defines who we are Is it in our nature to do certain things or are we decided upon by what we are surrounded by 0 Answers to this has varied in the past but modern theories suggest that there39s a bit of both It may not be exactly half nature and half nurture either 0 Another important category is the interaction our nature may have with our environment For example someone speaking up against what society may teach o MindBody Interactions Relationship between thinking and bodily responses Ex Being nervous for an exam psychological leads to sweating bodily response Perspective different ways of viewing people in the slides It is a way to analyze and explain behaviors 0 Our perspectives can be influenced by our upbringing people we surround ourselves by our biology genes mental and physical illnesses and more 0 Even though each and every one of us sit in the same lecture hall for psychology we all have a different view of Professor Pickrell PSYCHOLOGY39S INTELLECTUAL ROOTS These are different ideas that shape psychology today each are different The dates are not so important to memorize she will not test us on them but they are provided so we can understand context MindBody Problem o Are mind and body related MindBody Dualism Mind and body are separated If the mind is being studied you cannot infer anything to the body and vice versa since the mind is considered spiritual o Monism Your mind and body is connected so what we learn from one we can learn about the other British Empiricism 0 Knowledge is not gained by reason but by observation Observation is considered more important because some things that happen are counterintuitive o This really helped for advances physiology and medicine because people didn39t just give random medicine they actually would test things out by using the scientific method 0 Psychophysics how we experience sensations psychologically is depended on physical stimuli o Danvin39s Evolution The idea that every living thing descended from a common ancestor and that our minds are a product of evolution from other species this is important because if true it means that we can understand humans from what we learn of animals EARLY SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY TEACHINGS 0 Each underlined word is what the early psychologists considered important to study 0 Structuralism analyzing perspectives and the structures like the different parts of our brain values the importance of observing emotional processes Today it is known as introspection Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 o Functionalism Analyzes more of the how and why the structures work I like to think of it as more sciency Today it is cognitive and evolutionary psychology Includes the idea of Natural Selection features that living beings have now have been passed from generations William James Friday October 2 2015 lntroPsych101 Slides 3453 Different Perspectives of Psychology the founders and how they exist today Nativism Plato Some knowledge is innate and inborn Philosophical empiricism Aristotle All knowledge is from experience Phrenology idea that every region of the brain controls different functions of the body this is true but people took it to the extreme in the past Psychodynamic Perspective Definition Behaviors are internal unconscious and we sort of shove them down because that s what society teaches us to do Unconscious Influences conscious but is usually unaware Ex We have sexual and aggressive urges even as babies but we are taught that those things are wrong to express freely Psychoanalysis Bringing unconscious thoughts to surface so that we can understand disorders better We were taught to have Defense Mechanisms that prevent us from expressing our thoughts freely techniques to cope with anxiety and pain instead of using Free Association to freely express thoughts Extremely controversial especially since Freud was alive during the more proper times and used mixed empirical evidence with intuitive evidence Modern Psychodynamic Perspective Less of the innate sexual and aggressive tendencies Instead it focuses on how unconscious affects behavior Behavioral Perspective Behaviorism The idea that we should study what people DO not what they EXPERIENCE because we can t study consciousness directly We are born with a clean slate Pretty much the opposite of the psychodynamic theory Watson and Skinner Skinner Free will is an illusion and that if we realized this we can use reinforcement to fix human issues Reinforcement Skinner with the rats and 4th graders consequences of what you do will affect whether you do it again or not like punishments will enforce you to not do certain things Behavior in the behavioral perspective category learning experiences stimuli from the environment MODERN Behavior Modification decreasing problem behaviors and increasing positive behaviors by manipulating environmental factors Cognitive Behaviorism Learning and environment influences our thoughts Humanistic Perspective Maslow and Rogers Positive Psychology that humans can achieve their potentials but sometimes the environment frustrates their abilities to do that SelfActualization the inborn motive to reach one s full potential Cognitive Perspective How mental processes influence behavior Max Wertheimer illusions seeing things wrong not as they are Gestalt Psychology Humans see things as a whole instead of separate elements ex one light instead of2 lights Barlett focused on memory we don t remember things as they are but how we WANT them to be or how we think they SHOULD be Piaget Minds of children they can t comprehend that mounds of clay are the same amount even if they look different with clear evidence shown Lewin how each person perceives the world is different from everyone else and we should learn from their behaviors to better understand how to predict their behaviors ex people with anorexia see themselves as fat even if they re not Cognitive Neuroscience Thought process links with brain activity Ex Hungry so which parts of our brains light up Behavioral Neuroscience Thought process links to how body responds ex you re hungry so your stomach rumbles Sociocultural Perspective How does society affect our behavior Lewin Field theory internal forces external forces behavior Really took off in WWII Culture values beliefs behaviors and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed down Norms rules for normal acceptable behavior within a group though many are unwritten like singing in an elevator full of strangers is weird Socialization transmission and internalization of culture 0 Cultural Psychology how do cultures shape behaviors and mind processes of its members There are 2 kinds Individualism your goals and identity is based on your own achievements and Collectivism individual goals are based on a group like family and maybe friends Biological Perspective 0 Biological perspective how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behavior 0 Neurotransmitters chemicals in nerve cells that help them communicate 0 Behavior Genetics how behaviors are influenced by genetic ineritance Psychology Today 0 American Psychological Association APA Founded in 1892 biggest psychological association in world 0 Women and Minorities are also growing in the psychology field 0 There s a variety of career paths and clinical is the most common
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