World History II Russian Revolution Notes
World History II Russian Revolution Notes HIST 1020
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becky Stinchcomb on Monday March 21, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/21/16
Hist1020 March 8, 2016 Remember…. - The Haitian Revolution - The American Revolution - The French Revolution Nothing that went on in these revolutions was the same as the things going on in this revolution! Pre-Revolutionary Russia - Last of the absolute monarchies - Nicholas II became Tsar in 1894 Russia is behind - 90% of Russians are poor peasants that own no land - 10% of the people in Russia own most of the land, and most of that is owned by the King and the family of the King Frustrated peasants Industrialization in Russia - Russia borrows funds to begin industrialization Trans- Siberian Railway - Aren’t enough factories in the cities for all of the peasants that migrated to the cities to find jobs Poor conditions in the factories - Unsafe Discontented workers - Working conditions in the new industrial towns were poor - Russian Pamphlet (1898): ‘The whole day we pour out our blood and sweat. Every day we are exposed to danger.’ Okrana (oxpaha) - Tsar’s personal police - Get rid of “problems” - Put down uprisings Bloody Sunday: January 22, 1905 - Nicholas ordered Okrana - The soldiers opened fire on the peaceful marchers, killing and wounding several Revolution of 1905 - By October, St. Petersburg was controlled by a council (soviet) - One of the leaders: Leon Trotsky October Manifesto - Promise of a Constitution - Creation of the Duma The Duma (in Russian, means “thought”) - Legislative body created to limit the power of the Tsar - When the Duma met, it began to criticize the Tsar and demanded changes Russia before World War I World War I - In 1915, Tsar Nicholas II assumed command of the Russian armed forces - The Tsar was a poor commander. The Russian army lost confidence in the Tsar after a string of serious defeats. - Thousands of men deserted - People at home getting mad at Tsar Tsarina in charge - She essentially ran the government - Alexandria Grigori Rasputin - A ‘holy man’ who appeared to be able to heal the hemophilia of Prince Alexis, the heir to the throne - Was actually a weird dude Rasputin with Admirers - Apparently had a terrible body odor, but women still loved him - Had the attention of Tsarina - Was rumored to be having an affair with Tsarina - Not everyone knew why Tsarina taking advice from Rasputin because not everyone knows that the prince has hemophilia (royal family keeps it a secret because they don’t want others to view family as weak) Faith in Monarchy Weakens - No one understood why Tsarina putting faith in Rasputin - Officials decide to assassinate Rasputin - Woman shoots him in the stomach, but he doesn’t die - Officials invite Rasputin over for tea and cake, but try to feed him poison - Rasputin turns down food - Rasputin fakes being dead and then runs - Officials shooting him as he runs, then wrap him in a sheet, tie his hands together, and throw him in the water so that he dies - Autopsy shows that Rasputin was shot multiple times but died of hypothermia - Rasputin had gotten a hand free and was trying to get out of the sheet but was unsuccessful and died The Fall of Absolutism The Revolutions of 1917 - March Revolution (February in Europe, same thing but different name) - November Revolution (October in Europe, same thing but different name) Petrograd: The Workers Revolt- Kirov Plant - March 8, 1917: International Women’s Day - Groups of women workers and also mothers who aren’t workers that are angry about working conditions and angry about a lack of food Remember… - The Women’s March to Versailles (some of the same reasons for protesting) Reaction from the Battlefield - Nicholas orders troops to halt protests by any means necessary - Former troops standing with protesters Nicholas abdicates - March 15, 1917 - He quits because he realizes that he sucks at his job and will probably get killed if he doesn’t - Goes to prison Who is in charge now? Provisional Government - Alexander Kerensky - Duma - Military The Petrograd Soviet Called this because during WWI, Russia changed name of St. Petersburg to Petrograd because the former sounded too German - Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies (S) - Socialists - As long as provisional government rules properly, socialists will support Remember Marx… How socialism is supposed to happen (according to Marx): - Poverty and desperation drive MASSES of workers (revolution from below) (proletariat) to: Seize control of the government and the mans of production Wage a VIOLENT REVOLUTION Establish a new government (socialist) Slowly become communist Vladimir Lenin - Socialist - What is the be Done? (pamphlet he wrote about how socialist revolution can overthrow the monarchy) - Has a different interpretation about how socialism is supposed to start Socialism a la Lenin - Workers were not strong enough to begin a revolution without leaders Not enough workers because most of Russia still not industrialized Most of people still peasants - The revolution will begin with professionals (revolution from above) acting in the best interest of the workers - These individuals are called the vanguard - Led by intellectuals - Lenin not a worker, so if socialism was Marxian, Lenin would not have a place in it so he has to create a plan where he holds power Lenin divides the socialists - Two factions “Mensheviks” (in the minority, actually what that word means) Bolsheviks (in the majority, actually what that word means) Lenin’s group Lenin - Demands an end to the “imperialistic war” - Wants to over throw the Provisional Government (conveniently puts Lenin in charge) - Start of the second revolution Peace, Land, Bread! - All power to the soviets! November Revolution (November 6, 1917) - Revolutionary army marches in and takes over - Lenin went on to consolidate his power in January 1918 - All private property was established and divided among the peasantry - Largest industrial enterprises nationalized - Puts ownership of factories into the hands of the people working in them - Get Russia out of the war… - Treaty of Brest- Litovsk negotiated with the Germans, giving them much Russian territory, population, and resources (land that is given up is actually lost after the war and forms new nations like Lithuania, Ukraine, and Latvia) Lenin in Charge - December 1917: Lenin set up a secret police force known as the Cheka (remember the Committee of Public Safety) - When opponents tried to assassinate Lenin in 1918, he launched the Red Terror campaign against his enemies 50,000 people disappear or killed because showed opposition to Lenin or to his order Lenin “cleans the evil” from the land After the Revolution - Lenin’s most pressing problem after the November Revolution was to deal with his opponents who had mounted a full scale civil war Russian Civil War (1917- 1920) - Bolsheviks versus Mensheviks (and anyone else) “Reds” versus “Whites” - Complete breakdown of Russian economy and society Long Live the Red Army! Nicholas II’s Death: July 1918 - Still in prison - Executed to halt any attempt to restart the monarchy - Also his friends, family, and anyone who could be connected to him are killed White Army calls for help - The alliance answers - US, France, and Britain send troops to support the White Army The Reasons for the Bolshevik/ Red victory: - Reds occupied the strategic center of the nation - Whites were on the fringes - White opposition was ideologically fragmented, including reformists, Mensheviks, Czarists Aftermath of the War - 10 million dead - Famine 1921 - Around the Vulga Famine - Overall, about 5 million died from the famine War and aftermath casualties - 17 million war 10 million military 7 million civilian - 50 million influenza - 10 million civil war - 5 million famine - Approximately 82 million overall deaths so far Lenin’s Russia (1920-1924) - Economic Reforms New Economic Plan (NEP) Moderate mix of capitalism and socialism (mostly capitalist) - Political reforms Bolshevik party became the Communist Party (only party) Russia becomes the United Soviet Socialist Republics The New Economic Policy - Nations refused to trade with the new Soviet Union - In March 1921, Lenin created the NEP An attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry thru a free market system (so NOT communist system, only a communist name at first) NEP did work Lenin ready to return to Marxist principles Lenin dies before able to implement principles Leon Trotsky - Opposed the NEP - Felt that the USSR should try to export the revolution - USSR could not survive as the ONLY communist state Josef Stalin: New BMOC (big man on campus) - Stalin became the Party’s General Secretary in 1922 - Favored “socialism in one country” USSR should strengthen itself and lead the world by example - Supported the NEP - Feels that a show of power and converting other countries starts by being a sole country that survives and succeeds with socialistic practices Lenin’s dead now Trotsky or Stalin - Power struggle lasted until 1928, when Stalin finally took control - Stalin was a better politician, even though Trotsky was a better military general Trotsky - Trotsky forced into exile and eventually murdered in Mexico City in 1940 Stalin in Charge 1928 - Stalin went on to condemn all deviation from the party line and proclaimed himself vozhd (Leader) - Begins his version of socialism Socialism a la Stalin - Continuing the “revolution from above” - Believed that the new socialist USSR needed to be an example of how great socialism could be - Required the Soviet Union to catch up to the world - Rapid industrialization Stalin and the Five- Year Plans - To catch the USSR up with the West industrially Unrealistic production quotas were set, and tremendous sacrifices and ruthless methods were used to reach them Mostly just people disappearing and never being heard from again Collectivization - Farms as factories to feed the growth of industry Land is property of the state - Peasant opposition was crushed or starved - “Superfarming” Cultivate Vegetables! Industry - Plans did not emphasize consumer goods; preference was given to megaprojects - Following Lenin’s words: “Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country” Dnieper Dam - Giant hydroelectric dam that never really functioned or could function but it looked cool Magnitogorsk - Huge steel factory - Architects went to Gary, Indiana to tour a steel mill so that their mill would look like the one in Indiana White Sea- Baltic Canal - Built almost solely with convict labor, so unpaid labor - Stalin combined communism and dictatorship in this time, setting the tone for future communist leaders - By 1941, USSR was among the top 3 economic powers (because of rapid industrialization) Censorship Great Purges - Stalin cracked down on potential opposition- this so on penetrated all levels of Soviet society - Anyone perceived as a threat was forced to confess in public trials and then executed or shipped to a gulog - Millions disappeared during this time - At least: 90% of army’s top officers Every admiral in the navy 1 million Communist party members 40 million Russians War and aftermath Casualties (1914- 1930) - 17 million deaths 10 million military deaths 7 millions civilian deaths - 50 million influenza deaths - 10 million Russian Civil War - 5 million Famine 1921 - 50 million Stalin’s Purges - Approximately 132 million (almost 10%)